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Authors: Zoltán Demeter, Elena Palade, Éva Balogh, Csaba Jakab, Róbert Farkas, Balázs Tánczos and Sándor Hornok

Here we report a case of canine babesiosis with unusual morphology of the causative agent. A male, seven-week-old Labrador retriever puppy, exhibiting severe anaemia and haemoglobinuria, was presented at the Clinic of Internal Medicine in February 2011. The puppy was euthanised. The most relevant pathological changes were icterus, severe splenomegaly, generalised lymphadenopathy and haemoglobin nephrosis. Samples were collected from various organs for histology within one hour post mortem. Impression smears were also prepared from the spleen after overnight storage at 4 °C. Tissue sections and smears showed the presence of multiple, coccoid intraerythrocytic bodies that measured 1–2 μm and resembled small babesiae. No large piroplasms were seen. DNA was extracted from the spleen, and a conventional PCR was performed for the amplification of a 450-bp region of the 18S rRNA gene of piroplasms. The causative agent was identified as Babesia canis canis, with 99% sequence identity to other European isolates. Sequence identity to B. gibsoni was only 91%. This is the first account to verify that the morphology of the large canine piroplasm, B. canis, can be uniformly small babesia-like post mortem or following the storage of tissue samples.

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Thelohanellus kitauei was isolated from the koi Cyprinus carpio haematopterus, and the 18S rRNA gene of T. kitauei was amplified by optimised nested-PCR. The PCR product was sequenced and compared with other 18S rRNA genes of Thelohanellus species to investigate the relationships between their host specificities and infection sites. Based on the 18S rRNA sequences, T. kitauei is most closely related to T. hovorkai (which can infect the intestine). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that T. kitauei was clustered with other Thelohanellus spp. infecting Cyprininae. The present study suggests that the infection site and the host specificity (subfamily level) are reflected in the genetic relationships among Thelohanellus species.

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Authors: Jun Sasaki, Yusuke Kuroda, Atsushi Ueki, Bhuminand Devkota and Norio Yamagishi

Abstract

A 1-day-old male calf presented with clinical signs of severe progressive abdominal distension. Abdominal radiographic and ultrasonic images revealed several loop-like structures in the small intestine, which were indicative of gas retention. Experimental laparotomy was performed. However, the calf died during surgery. At necropsy, a round, well-circumscribed mass (3 × 3 × 2.5 cm) was found in the jejunal wall, and the jejunal lumen was narrowed. The mass was firm and had white to grey appearance on the cut surface. Histologically, the submucosa and the muscle layer were diffusely thickened due to abundance of neural tissues comprising several fascicles of nerve fibres and large aggregates of ganglion cells. Some ganglion cells contained basophilic Nissl substances in their cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, these cells were positive for S-100 and synaptophysin. Ultrastructural examination revealed that the neoplastic ganglion cells contained dense core vesicles in the cytoplasm. Based on these findings, the neoplastic lesion was diagnosed as ganglioneuroma in the jejunum.

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Authors: Márta Lőrincz, Attila Cságola, Imre Biksi, Levente Szeredi, Ádám Dán and Tamás Tuboly

Porcine circoviruses (PCV) are present worldwide, infecting domestic pigs and wild boars alike. Studies under laboratory conditions indicated that PCV can be taken up by mice and the virus can replicate in these animals. The possible role of rodents in maintaining and transmitting PCV2 infection in the field has not been investigated yet. The present study reports the detection of PCV2, the pathogenic form of the virus, in mice and rats. A number of rodents, such as mice, rats and voles, were collected at PCV2-infected farms and also outside pig herds and tested for the presence of the virus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results indicated that PCV2 can be present both in mice and rats (65.0% and 23.8% positivity, respectively) on the infected premises, but those rodents that were collected outside pig farms remained negative for PCV2.

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Authors: Zsolt Spitzmüller, Márton Hajdú, István Pócsi and Tamás Emri

Relative transcriptions of Aspergillus nidulans dug1-3 (orthologes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DUG — deficient in utilization of glutathione — pathway genes) and ggtA encoding γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were studied under conditions inducing glutathione degradation. GgtA was induced in all cases when glutathione levels decreased, but addition of yeast extract, which moderated glutathione degradation, enhanced its induction. Although dug2 showed constitutive transcription, dug1 and dug3 were induced by carbon and nitrogen starvation and yeast extract did not caused significant changes in their relative transcription. The in silico reconstructed DUG pathway of A. nidulans is a promising candidate for cytosolic GSH degradation induced by carbon/nitrogen stress.

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Using NMR spectroscopy benzene derivatives were detected in mycelia of Fusarium graminearum, a pathogen of wheat and maize. In previous studies F. graminearum was found to cause cancer to humans and benzene derivatives were detected in breath of cancer sufferers. Surprisingly, no study found benzene derivatives to be the cancerous agents in F. graminearum. In this study we detected benzene derivatives in F. graminearum and propose to study their role as cancer agents.

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Klebsiella (K.) oxytoca infection induced the abortion of a female equine fetus in the 10th month of pregnancy. Bacteria were cultured from the liver, lung and stomach content. They were labelled with an anti- Mycobacterium bovis antibody in the thymus, liver and lungs and were stained with Giemsa and Brown-Brenn staining in the thymus and lung. The diffusely consolidated lungs contained numerous grey-whitish foci 2–4 mm in diameter, which corresponded to severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia characterised by numerous intraalveolar neutrophils and macrophages and multinucleated Langhans’ giant cells. K. oxytoca was located in the cytoplasm of these cells, and extracellularly in the lumen of alveoli, bronchioles and bronchi, in the capsule of thymus and in the sinusoids of the liver. The results indicate that K. oxytoca can cause sporadic equine abortion.

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In recent years, Aleuroclava psidii (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) has been extending its geographic range due to the international movement of plant material. In October 2013, it was discovered on Psidium sp. (Myrtaceae) in Egypt and represents the first record of this species in Egypt and the Western Palearctic region.

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Authors: Sándor Hornok, Nóra Takács, Krisztina Szőke and Bernd Kunz

A long-legged tick was collected from a hibernating greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis) in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Based on morphological characteristics as well as on partial COI and 16S rDNA gene sequences the tick was identified as an engorged female of Ixodes ariadnae. The greater mouseeared bat is a new host record for this tick species. Taking into account the geographical position of the collection site and the known migration distance of the greater mouse-eared bat, the present data suggest the autochthonous occurrence of I. ariadnae in Germany. This is the first record of I. ariadnae in Germany, and in any country other than Hungary, where this species has been recently discovered.

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