Authors:Wojciech Sodkiewicz, Barbara Apolinarska and Teresa Sodkiewicz
The aim of this work was to distinguish between chromosomes of A-genome of 6x-triticale and A
and to evaluate the efficiency of distinguishing secondary tetraploid triticale lines varying in A/A
chromosome substitutions. These secondary tetraploid lines were developed by crossing of this hexaploid triticales with the synthetic allotetraploid
T. monococcum/S. cereale
RR) as a male parent. The comparative C-banding showed that chromosomes of
are less easily stained than are chromosomes of hexaploid triticale. Precise differential staining of tetraploid triticale lines with complete A genome distinguished chromosomes originating from A
-genome of primary A
RR allotetraploid and those substituted from A-genome of 6x-triticale. Seventeen different chromosome constitutions of tetraploid triticale with complete A-genome were identified. The assessed substitutions showed close linkage with several phenotypic traits. Chromosomes 2A, 4A, 5A and 6A participated in substitutions with significantly higher frequency than other chromosomes of A-genome.
The Article gives a general overview of the Hungarian constitutional and legal framework for the participation of national minorities in the decision-making. The relatively low number of people belonging to national minorities in Hungary as well as the scattered patterns of their settlement and some aspects of the Hungarian legal traditions underlie the choice of the so called personal autonomy approach. The minorities can establish via a special electing mechanism local and national self-governments enjoying consultative and truly public law type rule-making and administrative competences. Having given the proper interpretation of the relevant article of the Constitution, the Constitutional Court also contributed to the birth of the Act on the Rights of Minorities. The basic reason behind the creation of a very complicated, multilevel institutional complex is that in this way, educational and cultural needs of minorities of different scale can be represented in a relatively coherent manner. This does not exclude at all the possibility of bringing modifications to the legal text in the light of a decade's experience.
In 1918, Slovenia became a constituent part of Yugoslavia. After the Second World War, Yugoslavia was reconstituted as a socialist state. When the attempts to turn Yugoslavia into a democratic country failed, Slovenia decided to become independent. As it is reflected in its new Constitution (1991), Slovenia is designed as a parliamentary republic, as a unitary state with local self-government and is strives to become a social state. During the transition from socialism, Slovenian law faced numerous challenges like the privatization of economy. The political and legal transition is still taking place. Hopefully, the entry to the European Union will give it new dimensions. Between the two world wars, Slovenian legal science was especially influenced by Austrian-German legal positivism; although the legal-comparative, sociological and axiological methods were important as well. After the Second World War, in some critical periods an apologetic legal positivism gained the upper hand in certain areas. On the other hand, new legal institutes and departments furthered the development of new sciences (criminology, sociology of law, political economy, public administration). New scientific areas emerged (comparative commercial law, comparative labour law and the law of the European Union). Some legal sciences (like criminal law) have been enriched by additional (sociological, axiological and comparative methods) methods.
The present study deals with language issues and language related strategies in international commercial arbitration, focusing on the time period prior to the constitution of the arbitral tribunal. The issue of language becomes a part of party strategies, and it is also one of the questions which needs to be heeded in order to establish efficient arbitration. The first part of the study deals with choice made by the parties, strategic considerations behind such a choice, and consequences of a choice made. Consequences are scrutinized regarding both the parties and the arbitrators. Attention is also devoted to the interrelation between choice of language and choice of law. The second section deals with situations where the parties have failed to make a choice. In this situation the parties and the arbitrators have no firm guidance, but they may have some points of support on the grounds of which they may anticipate the language of the proceedings, and may prepare for the arbitration proceedings. The third part of the study deals with various facets of language issues emerging in court proceedings in assistance of starting arbitration. The question is raised whether the judges who are appointing arbitrators could and should verify the language abilities of the prospective arbitrators.
Scientific observers as well politicians have noted for a long time that European integration is a process led by the elites but supported much less enthusiastically by the public at large. The first part of this paper documents systematically and for the first time how pervasive the split between elites and citizens has become over the last decades; the rejection of the “Constitution for Europe” by clear majorities of the French and Dutch voters in 2005 was only the last and most spectacular event in this regard. The paper proposes two theses which help to explain this split: (1) European integration has brought and still brings many advantages to the powerful elites involved, the political, economic and new “Eurocratic” elites; (2) for the population at large, the gains from integration are much less obvious; significant subsections of the populations in different EU member countries have been affected negatively by integration. These theses are documented by empirical evidence from many different sources: Data about the origins, careers and privileges of European politicians and bureaucrats; historical and contemporary data about the role of economic interests and the successful strategies of economic elites concerning integration; statistical data about the socioeconomic development of the EU and “Euroland” compared to other large advanced countries and macro-regions of the world; and survey data about the perceptions and evaluations of European integration both among the elites and the populations in the different member states.
Dans la pratique de catalogage en vigueur aux 17e–18e siècles, les soucis qu’on qualifierait aujourd’hui de bibliothéconomiques ne se sont pas affirmés. Cette affirmation porte également sur les bibliothèques dont le fonctionnement est déterminé par des prescriptions d’ordre monacal (constitutiones). Puisque les possesseurs ne pouvaient pas prévoir à long terme l’enrichissement de leurs bibliothèques, les possibilités d’acquérir de nouveaux livres sur des critères thématiques furent extrêmement limitées. Seulement une partie infime des bibliothèques fut soumise à un classement thématique détaillée (exécuté soit par le possesseur en personne, soit par son employé).La structure interne des bibliothèques, ainsi que les transformations thématiques de leur corpus constituent une source historique importante, puisqu’elles permettent d’étudier les tendances générales de la réception des idées occidentales dans la Hongrie de la période en question. Les deux phénomènes que nous devons impérativement retenir sont d’abord la sécularisation (la baisse de la participation des livres théologiques ou ecclésiastiques), puis la formation des collections patriotica (consacrées á l’histoire nationale).
The importance of the early translations, copied or printed, derived from a parallel process that fostered the development of a standard version of the Hungarian language and the norms of literary Hungarian. In Hungary Benedek Komjáti, Gábor Pesti and János Sylvester fulfilled the Erasmus program of translating and distributing the Hungarian translations of the Holy Scriptures. They knew that to achieve this they had to find the appropriate linguistic form. Therefore, they wrote also pieces in diff erent genres and did prepare Bible translations only. Due to the changes brought about by Reformation people needed new books in the vernacular in all areas of life, for example school books, catechisms, church constitution (Kirchenordnung) and of course the Bible. In the century of the Reformation, the Hungarian Protestant ministers who knew languages followed Erasmus’ example and felt their duty to translate the Holy Scriptures into Hungarian. at the end of the century the first complete Bible in Hungarian was published in Vizsoly in 1590, which was prepared by a circle of scholars. The first complete Catholic Bible translation was published in 1626 in Viennna thanks partly to György Káldi and partly to Péter Pázmány.
Authors provide a 6-year study about aspects of development of
and its parasitoids in different leaf types of horse-chestnut trees. Investigations were carried out near Hédervár, North-West Hungary between 1999 and 2004.It was ascertained that in large leaves at low foliage levels as well as in large leaves exposed to direct sunlight developed more moths than in other leaf types of equal quantity (i.e. equal number of leaflets). On the other hand, there were not considerable differences between shaded and sun-exposed leaves in this regard if their quantity is measured in grams. Moreover, comparing the numbers of hatched moths per unit leaf weight, the values for minute leaves were the highest. The differences were explained on the basis of diverse microclimatic conditions in the mines, height preference of the moth or variations in dry weights per unit leaf area.Parasitism of
showed significant yearly differences between canopy levels and a tendency of changes during the years. Parasitism was higher in shaded than in sun-exposed leaves. Lowest values were found in minute leaves among all leaf types investigated what was explained with a presumed foraging behaviour of the parasitoids.Structure and species constitution of the parasitoid community and its changes in time are discussed in different leaf types. Temporal changes of several characteristics found in different leaf types refer to an adaptation process of the horse-chestnut leafminer.