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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Daniela Horvat, Zdenko Loncaric, Vladimir Vukadinovic, Georg Drezner, Blazenka Bertic and Kresimir Dvojković

The effect of the N, P and K fertilisation on yield and quality parameters of cultivar Žitarka during two growing seasons (2002/03 and 2003/04) was studied. Fertilization increased yield, although only treatment with 200 kg N ha −1 yielded significantly higher than treatments with 80 kg N ha −1 . Protein content increased significantly (P<0.001) with the application of 80 kg N ha −1 , 120 kg N ha −1 and 160 kg N ha −1 . The highest N applications with 200 kg N ha −1 and 240 kg N ha −1 increased protein content on the same level as with 160 kg N ha −1 . Wet gluten and sedimentation value were also significantly (P<0.001) affected by N fertilizer treatments. Although increment of N fertilization increased values of these quality parameters, 120 kg N ha −1 , 160 kg N ha −1 and 200 kg N ha −1 treatments showed similar effect, while treatment with 240 kg N ha −1 resulted with significantly higher values. Gluten index increased only with applying 80 kg N ha −1 while the highest N levels (200 kg N ha −1 and 240 kg N ha −1 ) showed dramatically gluten weakening. Considering grain hardness only treatment with 80 kg N ha −1 had significant (P<0.001) influence. Simultaneously, P and K did not affect grain yield and quality, neither comparing PK to controle, or N 2 P 1 K 1 to N 2 P 2 K 2 .

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The vast genetic resources of wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, hereafter WB) may hold unique assets for improving barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivars for drought stress. To evaluate genetic potential and characterization of variation among a diverse collection of barley and WB genotypes, mostly originated from Iran, a field experiment was performed under three moisture environments (control, mild and intense drought stress) during two years (2012–2014). Considerable variation was observed among the wild and cultivated genotypes for drought tolerance and agronomic traits. Principal component analysis (PCA) grouped genotypes studied into three groups (WB, two-row barley and sixrow barley groups). However, Iranian and foreign WB genotypes were not completely separated, showing a high variation within both gene pools. The high significance of genotype by environment interaction, confirms importance of using accurate target environments for drought stress breeding. A number of WB genotypes with the highest values of the number of tillers, number of seed per spike, seed weight, grain yield and yield stability index under stressed environments were identified as superior genotypes. Most of these genotypes originate from Iran, highlighting the importance of this germplasm in barley breeding.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: Marija Vrataric, Aleksandra Sudaric, Vlado Kovacevic, Tomislav Duvnjak, Miroslav Krizmanic and Anto Mijic

Six cultivars of soybean ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) maturity groups 0 and 1 were evaluated in relation to the response to foliar fertilization with two levels of Epsom salt (ESFF) on grain yield, protein and oil content in grain. A field study conducted in Eastern Croatia during four years (1998–2001). The obtained results showed significant increasing of grain yield, protein and oil content in grain affected by ESFF. At investigated traits were non significant differences between two treatment levels. Interaction ESFF with cultivars as well as with years was significant, respectively.

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High yielding, stable wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars are needed for the diverse environments in West Asia to improve rural livelihoods. This study was conducted to determine the performance of elite wheat breeding lines developed by CIMMYT, to analyze their stability for grain yield across diverse environments, and to identify superior genotypes that could be valuable for varietal release. Genetically diverse 196 advanced breeding lines were evaluated across different sites in Afghanistan. Grain yield, days to heading and plant height were analyzed. Genotypic superiority for grain yield was determined using genotype and genotype × environment (GGE) biplot analysis. The experimental genotypes showed arrays of variation for grain yield in each year, with mean values ranging from 3908 to 7209 kg/ha. A set of 20 experimental genotypes superior to the check based on their high mean yield and stability across environments as assessed by the GGE rank was identified. The most stable high yielding genotypes were HD 2687; Elvia/5/Cndo/R143//Ente/Mexi75/3/AE. sq./4/2*Oci; Quaiu; Whear/Vivitsi//Whear; Kiritati/2*Trch; Waxwing; Munal#1; Whear//Inqalab 91*2/Tukuru and Snb//Cmh79A.955/3*Cno79/3/Attila/4/Chen/A.sq.(Taus)//Bcn/3/2*Kauz. These superior genotypes also had acceptable maturity and plant height. The findings of this study provides information on adaptation of the internationally important wheat genotypes, valuable for wheat improvement program in Afghanistan and its neighbouring countries in West, Central and South Asia.

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The study was carried out in the experimental filed of the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, on calcareous chernozem in the period 2001–2003. The grain yield and thousand grain weight of two maize inbred lines (IL1 — FAO 400 and IL2 — FAO 600) were observed in dependence on the time of nitrogen application and forms of nitrogen applied.Regarding time of fertilisation, the highest average grain yield was obtained by the use of Nmin method. Regarding the kind of nitrogen fertilisers, the highest average grain yield of observed maize inbred lines (3,264 kg ha−1) was obtained by the application of ammonium-sulphate in the primary autumn tillage (Nautumn). The use of the Nmin method (N ranging from 17 to 35 kg ha−1, in dependence on the soil mineral nitrogen content), especially in years with lower precipitation sums, resulted in the highest increase in grain yield (39.2%) and 1000-grain weight (3.2%) in observed maize inbred lines compared with the controls. The application of different forms of nitrogen did not result in statistically significant differences in 1000-grain weight in analysed maize inbred lines.

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Global warming is rising as a serious concern affecting agricultural production worldwide. Rice is a staple food crop and the threshold temperature for its pollination is 35 °C. A rise in temperature above this value can cause pollen sterility and may severely affect fertilization. Therefore, a study emphasizing the rise in temperature with respect to pollen viability was conducted with eleven rice genotypes during kharif seasons of 2010 and 2011 in indigenous field conditions. Increasing mean temperature by 12 °C at full flowering was found to severely affect the spikelet attributes of the crop. All genotypes showed spikelet sterility above 90% during both seasons. The study indicated that increased temperature may limit rice yield by affecting spikelet fertility and grain filling. The net reduction in grain yield was 30.4% and 27.6% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. A clear reduction in pollen size under high temperature was shown by scanning electron microscopy.

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27 136 142 Bhatnagar, V. K., Sharma, S. N. (1997): Genetic analysis of grain yield and its components in barley over environments. Crop Impr

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Sidwell, R. J.; Smith, E. L. & R. W. McNew. 1976. Inheritance and interrelationships of grain yield and selected yield-related traits in hard red winter wheat cross. Crop Sci. 16: 650–654. McNew R. W

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A long-term field experiment started in 1995 on Research Farm of Department of Soil Science, CCS Haryana Agricultural University Hisar (India) was selected to study the effects of organic manures and chemical fertilizers on productivity, seed quality and nutrient use efficiency of wheat under pearl millet-wheat cropping system. The organic manures (15 Mg FYM, 5 Mg poultry manure and 7.5 Mg pressmud) were applied alone and in combination with fertilizers (150 kg N + 30 kg P2O5 ha−1) and compared with chemical fertilizers applied alone (150 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 ha−1 and 75 kg N + 30 kg P2O5 ha−1). The results showed that the application of organic manures in combination with N and P fertilizers significantly increased all yield attributes, i.e. plant height, number of tillers/m row length, spike length, number of grains/spike. Higher grain yield of wheat (61.4, 57.4 and 62.7 q ha−1) was observed when recommended dose of N and half of P was applied in conjunction with FYM, poultry manure and pressmud, respectively. Grain yield of wheat increased by 13.5, 6.1 and 15.9%, respectively, under same treatments when compared with recommended dose of N and P fertilizers. Among the organic manures, highest yield (32.9 q ha−1) was obtained with pressmud application. However, application of organic manures alone resulted in poor yield and even lower than 50% recommended dose of N and P fertilizer. All the seed quality parameters (standard germination, shoot length, root length, seedling dry weight, seedling vigour index-I and -II) improved with the combined application of organic manures and chemical fertilizers as compared to their individual application. The partial factor productivity of N and P increased with combined application organic manures and chemical fertilizer as compared to chemical fertilizers applied alone, however, nutrient harvest index and their utilization efficiency decreased with combined application of organic manures and fertilizers as compared to their individual application.

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