The aim of the study was to compare the effect of pressure and microwave cooking on the in vitro protein digestibility of bean seeds
. The results of the in vitro digestibility ascertained the improvement of protein digestibility affected by pressure-cooking of seeds. The digestibility of proteins of microwave-cooked bean seeds was lower. The electrophoretic SDS-PAGE separation patterns of bean proteins hydrolysed with trypsin indicated a significant influence of both treatments on the proteins examined. Degradation of proteins was apparent, however, the dominant fraction of 47–41 kDa remained intact, which confirms its resistance to digestion.
Cone penetration tests are particularly useful to determine several soil parameters and identify the class of the soil. Generally, information on the current soil properties are given from laboratory and in-situ tests, but the stress history, state of consolidation and the lateral stress parameter at rest can also be important.There are several methods to determine the over-consolidation ratio using cone resistance, sleeve friction and pore pressure from cone penetration test. The methods are applicable to several special soils (intact clays and clean quartz soils), but none can handle all types of soils. The results produced by these the methods are very different, so it is important to analyze them.
Modeling of single pile behavior is examined using AXIS 8 VM and PLAXIS 3D software packages, and the database of 20 pile load tests made in Hungary. Cone Penetration Test diagrams and the load-displacement curves are used to determine the soil mechanical parameters and the limits of pile resistances as input data for the numerical calculations. The goal of this work is to assess how precisely can be determined the load-settlement curve using available interface and sub-grade reaction models compared to the field load test results. This study is the first stage of improving the combined pile-raft foundation modeling.
The resistance of steel-concrete composite trusses is significantly influenced by shear connection producing interaction between the steel beam and concrete slab. To create the interaction between these structural parts, it is needed to prevent the relative slip at the steel-concrete interface using the shear connectors. Push-out testing can reflect the more real effect of the longitudinal force and reproduce the distribution of the shear force between the steel section and concrete slab. The finite element analysis is used in the paper to investigate numerically this structural system behavior, exploiting finite element computer procedures.
Authors:Viola Hospodarova, Jozef Junak and Nadezda Stevulova
Nowadays, color concrete pigments are used to revive space in the construction of new buildings, reconstruction existing buildings and squares. Color pigments represent a partial weight replacement of the binder. Color pigmented concrete also has properties like traditional concrete namely high strength, good durability and weather resistance for its variable use. In this paper, characterization and classification of color pigments, using and their influence on the properties of concrete is given. The experimental part of concrete composites studying (with color pigments) includes testing of physical and mechanical properties in comparison to reference sample (without color pigments).
The aim of the paper is to present the influence of different reinforcement directions (horizontal, vertical and the combination of the two) on the shear resistance, failure modes and crack pattern of solid masonry walls. In order to investigate the effect of vertical reinforcement a new type of bonding of bricks was developed. The favorable influence of mixed reinforcement is clearly shown. The crack pattern modification effect and the shear capacity enhancement of reinforcement are unambiguously proved. Force-displacement diagrams, extreme horizontal loads applied and maximum displacements at the top are compared and evaluated for all specimens.
The design practice of structural engineering is currently undergoing a considerable amount of fundamental change. For example, in recent years, limit state design has been introduced in Europe for the design of steel structures, and load and resistance factor design has become mandatory in the United States. However, other more dramatic changes in the practice of structural steel design attributable to a shift in the design philosophy as evidenced by the introduction of numerous new codes and standards that now require design for stability and ductility response. This paper discusses the yield mechanism forms of different solutions of the connections of trapezoidal stiffeners and cross beams for orthotropic steel plates.
Authors:Kitti Ajtayné Károlyfi, Dániel Harrach and Ferenc Papp
Packing density of aggregate influences greatly the properties of concrete. Maximization of packing density increases the flowing ability and segregation resistance of the fresh concrete and the compressive strength of the hardened concrete. The determination of maximum density is difficult experimentally; therefore several models have been developed for that purpose. However, these models do not take the size of the formwork into account. In this study, 20 different formwork shapes were examined with defined aggregate fractions. Results show that increasing the formwork size increases the packing density of aggregate, and the growth depends on the formwork size and compaction method.
Authors:E. Márki, I. Vas-Vincze, L. Tóvári and Gy. Vatai
One of the most important enriching materials at the processing of alimentary pastes is the egg, which usage is limited because of its water content. Removing water from liquid whole egg with membrane processes, such as ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) was applied for raising the solid content at a temperature of 25 °C at constant flow rate. The separation procedures were carried out on laboratory scale equipments. The initial solid content of the liquid whole egg was 24 refractive (Ref%). The effects of different recirculation flow rates and transmembrane pressure differences were investigated on the permeate flux of the liquid egg. The product had up to 30, 35.5 and 36 Ref% solids in case of UF, NF and RO, respectively. From the resistance data it is obvious, that the polarization layer resistances (RP) determine the values of the permeate flux. The total solid content of permeate was 0.3 and 0.1 Ref% in case of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis, respectively. On the basis of experiments main data of a continuous pilot scale system were calculated and simplified cost estimation was performed using recent economic data of year 2011.
In bread making the wheat dough undergoes some degree of deformation in each step of the process. It is generally accepted that the baking properties of wheat flour dough are mainly due to the viscoelasticity of the gluten protein. Measurement of the rheological properties of dough gives valuable information concerning the quality of the wheat flour, the machining properties of the dough and the textural characteristics of the finished products. This technique uses a new apparatus (wheat gluten quality analyser&WGQA, C HANG, 1994) especially developed to evaluate the rheological properties of gluten by measuring the following parameters: resistance to extension (newton), extensibility (mm) and energy (joule). The test realized with the apparatus WGQA was carried out on wheat gluten isolated according to the A.A.C.C. (1995) method. Results obtained using the new technique showed high levels of correlation for maximum resistance to extension (R 2 =0.9018) and energy (R 2 =0.8824) between WGQA and standardized parameters obtained from Brabender Extensograph.