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stress protein Hsp60 early in infection of human monocytes and L929 cells correlate with virulence . Infect Immun 64 , 1968 – 1976 ( 1996 ). 3. Garduno , R.A. , Chong , A

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Developments in Health Sciences
Authors: E Burgettiné Böszörményi, S Németh, A Fodor, K Bélafiné Bakó, D Vozik, Z Csima and I Barcs

Amphotericin B and fluconazole. Its hypha-producing ability and enzyme production (phospholipase, protease, and haemolysin) only increase its virulence [ 6 ]. The number of C. krusei, C. glabrata , and C. tropicalis infections also increases

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, and infection . Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 23 , 35 – 73 . 10.1128/CMR.00039-09 John , N. and Hatha , A. A. M . ( 2013 ): Distribution, extracellular virulence factors and drug resistance of motile aeromonads in fresh water ornamental fishes and

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Ervin Albert, Rita Sipos, Szilárd Jánosi, Péter Kovács, Árpád Kenéz, Adrienn Micsinai, Zsófia Noszály and Imre Biksi

) for the presence of the SA-specific staphylococcus protein A gene ( spa ), the two variants of the methicillin-resistance coding genes, mecA and mecC (formerly mecA LGA251 ), as well as pvl as a marker of the human-related virulence gene Panton

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Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays a key role in the evolution of bacterial pathogens. The exchange of genetic material supplies prokaryotes with several fitness traits enhancing their adaptive response to environmental changes. Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) represent an important and in most cases already immobilized subset of the different vehicles for HGT. Encoding several virulence factors PAIs represent a major contribution to bacterial pathogenicity. Nonetheless, the transfer mechanisms of PAIs still remain elusive. We summarise the currently available data regarding the major ways of genetic mobilisation with a focus on the transfer of the Yersinia High-Pathogenicity Island (HPI).

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. Molins , C. R. , Delorey , M. J. , Yockey , B. M. , Young , J. W. , Sheldon , S. W. , Reese , S. M. , Schriefer , M. E. and Petersen , J. M. ( 2010 ): Virulence differences among Francisella tularensis subsp . tularensis clades in

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. , Kononen , E. , Virolainen-Julkunen , A. R. , Vaara , M. and Tissari , P. ( 2009 ): Detection of virulence genes of Clostridium difficile by multiplex PCR . APMIS 117 , 607 – 613

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Sameh Ben Dhaou, Corinne Sailleau, Besma Babay, Cyril Viarouge, Soufien Sghaier, Stephan Zientara, Salah Hammami and Emmanuel Bréard

orbivirus proteins that could affect virulence and pathogenesis . Vet. Italia 40 , 417 – 425 . Kahlon , J. , Sugiyama , K. and Roy , P. ( 1983 ): Molecular basis of bluetongue

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. , Wolffe , E. J. and Moss , B. ( 2000 ): The vaccinia virus A14.5L gene encodes a hydrophobic 53-amino-acid virion membrane protein that enhances virulence in mice and is conserved among vertebrate poxviruses . J. Virol. 74 , 4085 – 4092

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Anna Valkó, Imre Biksi, Attila Cságola, Tamás Tuboly, Krisztián Kiss, Krisztina Ursu and Ádám Dán

. , Song , Y. and Cao , Y. ( 2015 ): Identification and pathogenicity of a variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus field strain with reduced virulence . Virol. J. 12 , 88 – 92 .

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