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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Michel Lejoyeux, Cecilia Guillot, Florence Chalvin, Aymeric Petit and Valerie Lequen

Abstract

Aim of the study: We assessed exercise dependence (ED), alcohol and nicotine use disorders, eating disorders, hypochondria and compulsive buying and in a population of customers of a Parisian sport shop. Methods: Five hundred consecutive customers of a sport shop were invited to participate. Diagnostic of exercise dependence was made with the Exercise Addiction Inventory and a specific questionnaire checking all diagnostic criteria. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for bulimia, alcohol and nicotine use disorders were checked and all subjects answered the CAGE and Fagerström questionnaires. Hypochondria was assessed with the DSM-IV-TR criteria and the Whiteley Index of Health Anxiety. For all parameters, customers with (ED+) and without (ED-) exercise dependence were compared. Results: The prevalence of exercise dependence was 29.6%. Subjects from the ED+ group were younger than in the ED-group (27.1 vs 29.8 years) and there were more women. They were more dependent on alcohol, had higher scores at the CAGE questionnaire. ED+ subjects more often presented hypochondria (23 vs 15%), bulimia and binge eating and they more often made gifts to themselves and to others. Conclusions: Exercise dependence appears as a frequent and almost always unrecognized form of behavioral dependence in non clinical population frequenting sport shops. It is frequently associated to chemical dependence and eating disorders.

Open access

The main objective of the DOSoReMI.hu (Digital, Optimized, Soil Related Maps and Information in Hungary) project is to significantly extend the potential, how demands on spatial soil related information could be satisfied in Hungary. Although a great amount of soil information is available due to former mappings and surveys, there are more and more frequently emerging discrepancies between the available and the expected data. The gaps are planned to be filled with optimized digital soil mapping (DSM) products heavily based on legacy soil data, which still represent a valuable treasure of soil information at the present time. The paper presents three approaches for the application of Hungarian legacy soil data in object oriented digital soil mapping.

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The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm−1 of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions.

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This research was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) (1 mM) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) (50 μM) on physiological performance of faba bean (Vicia faba) under different levels of NaCl salinity (0, 4, 8 and 12 dS/m). The experiment was arranged as factorial on the bases of randomized complete block design in three replications. Leaf Na+ content, root and leaf soluble sugars, antioxidant enzymes activities such as catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation increased, but K+, K+/Na+ and membrane stability index (MSI) decreased as a result of salt stress. However, foliar sprays of BAP and particularly SA reduced Na+ content and lipid peroxidation, while enhanced the K+ content, K+/Na+, soluble sugars, antioxidant enzymes activities and MSI under different levels of salinity. It was, therefore, concluded that exogenous application of these growth regulators (GR) can considerably improve salt tolerance and physiological performance of faba bean.

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Adhesion of Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum 2750, Lactobacillus sakei DSM 20017 and Bifidobacterium bifidum B3.2 to Caco-2 cell line was investigated in vitro. The adhesion ability of the tested strains was quantified with three methods: fluorescent-labelling, Gram-staining — followed by cell counting and image analysis — and plate count enumeration in order to compare the different detection methods. Results were in good correlation in terms of number of adhered bacteria, however, aggregate formation resulted in a significantly lower result with plate count enumeration in case of L. casei subsp. pseudoplantarum 2750. Percent coverage was found to be an appropriate method to compare adhesion ability of the strains, provided the cell sizes are similar. Gram-staining gives satisfactory results, however, fluorescent staining was not a suitable method in this study, since fluorescent dye hexidium iodide also labelled the intestinal cells.

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Abstract  

The stability constants, β1, of the monochloride complex of Sm(III) have been determined in mixed system of methanol and water at 1.00 mol dm−3 ionic strength using a solvent extraction technique. The values of β1 increase with an increase in the mole fraction of methanol (X s) in the mixed solvent system when 0≤X s ≤0.351. The interionic distance of Sm3+−Cl (d Sm−Cl) in the mixed solvent system was estimated by applying the Gibb's free energy derived from β1 to a Born-type equation. It was determined that an inflection point of the variation in the estimatedd Sm−Cl againstX s was present in the vicinity ofX s=0.054. The inflection point ofd Sm−Cl shows a value ofX s between those ofd Eu−Cl andd Nd−Cl previously obtained by us.

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Abstract  

The use of thek 0-standardization method in instrumental neutron activation analysis gives good accuracy and precision. The analysis time can be reduced drastically by employing software for thek 0-standardization calculations. In this work samples were irradiated in a TRIGA reactor and the gamma spectrum was analysed by Sampo 90 and thek 0-standardization by the KAYZERO/SOLCOI code (DSM Research). The efficiency measurement and the peak to total ratio at the reference and other geometries were measured and tested for their accuracy by analysing some reference materials. Reference materials such as SRM 1572 (Citrus leaves), SRM 1573 (Tomato leaves), SRM 1575 (Pine needles), IAEA Soil-7 (Soil) and SRM 1646 (Estuarine sediment) were analysed for the major, minor and trace element contents. The results were in good agreement with the certified or literature values. The recently released IAEA 140 (Sea plant homogenates) was also analysed for 28 elements.

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Abstract  

The paper focuses on the validation of the k 0-method of instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0-INAA) in the Tajura Nuclear Research Center (TNRC) via the analysis of several certified reference materials. The selected reference materials were: SRM 1572 Citrus Leaves, SRM 1575 Pine Needles, IAEA-A11 Milk Powder, IAEA-V-10 Hay Powder, RM IAEA-Soil-7 and RM IAEA-SL-1 Lake Sediment. The method is based on the PC version Kayzero/Solcoi software package issued by DSM. All the samples, reference materials and monitors were irradiated in various positions of the Tajura reactor with different f and α. The parameters f and α (f — thermal/epithermal neutron flux ratio, α — parameter accounting for the non-ideality of the 1/E epithermal neutron fluence rate distribution) were determined using the bare triple monitor method. The results obtained for all the reference materials are in good agreement with the certified values.

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The detection and evaluation of changes in vegetation patterns is a prerequisite for monitoring programs. The Swiss mire monitoring program aims to assess the changes in mire vegetation in order to examine the efficiency of the management measures. A promising way to explore and detect vegetation structure and vegetation change is the application of predictive vegetation mapping that combines image classification and predictive habitat distribution models. These models deal with predictor variables derived from remotely sensed spectral data and from environmental variables such as a digital surface model (DSM). Low accuracy of environmental data to predict vegetation at the local scale is due to the difficulties to capture dominant fine-scale enironmental gradients. Using high resolution spectral and topographical data sets of 50 cm pixel size and below, the study presented here aims to improve the simulation of local-scale vegetation properties.

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Effects of salinity on correlation, path and stress indices, yield and its components were studied in a set of 34 promising rice genotypes collected from various national and international organizations. These genotypes were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications during the wet seasons (kharif) of 2009 and 2010 in normal (ECiw ∼ 1.2 dS/m) and salinity stress (ECiw ∼ 10 dS/m) environments in micro plots at Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (CSSRI), Karnal, India. Grain yield per plant showed positive significant association with plant height, total tillers, productive tillers, panicle length, and biological yield per plant and harvest index under normal environment, whereas grain yield showed positive significant association with biological yield and harvest index under salinity stress. These results clearly indicate that selection of high yielding genotypes would be entirely different under normal and saline environments. The stress susceptibility index (SSI) values for grain yield ranged from 0.35 (HKR 127) to 1.55 (TR-2000-008), whereas the stress tolerance index (STI) values for grain yield ranged from 0.07 (PR 118) to 1.09 (HKR 120). The genotypes HKR 120, HKR 47 and CSR-RIL-197 exhibited higher values of stress tolerance index (STI) in salinity. Under salinity, negative and significant association was shown by SSI and grain yield in contrast to positive and significant association shown by STI and grain yield. These associations could be useful in identifying salt tolerant and sensitive high yielding genotypes. The stress susceptible and stress tolerance indices suggest that the genotypes developed for salinity tolerance could exhibit higher tolerance, adaptability and suitability. Harvest index and biological yield traits emerged as the ideal traits for improvement through selection and could be used to increase the rice productivity under saline stress environments.

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