After his death Béla III (r. 1172-96) was buried in the venue of coronations and burials of medieval Hungarian kings, the provost church of the Virgin in Székesfehérvár. After the Ottoman rule and the subsequent demise of the church the location of the grave fell into oblivion. The king’s and his wife’s mortal remains were found accidentally in December 1848. Custos of the National Museum János Érdy had the valuable finds and the rest of the grave goods transported to the museum. The significance of the discovery was largely enhanced when scientific research soon verified that it was Béla III’s grave, the only identified royal grave in Székesfehérvár.
During the military operations of the ongoing war of liberation of 1848/49, then in the period of retaliations after the crushing of the freedom fighting the idea of reburying the royal remains in the manner they reserved could not even be raised. In 1859 Ágoston Kubinyi, director of the National Museum commissioned Ferenc Reitter to make a plan for the extension of the museum. The arcade in classical or Rundbogenstil to be erected on the rear limit of the plot would have been terminated at either end with a chapel. Kubinyi wanted to deposit the royal remains and the grave goods in a worthy environment in the chapels. Governor of Hungary Móric Pálffy was shocked to find during a visit to the museum that the bones were in the museum and visitors were allowed to view them without, he thought, the right conditions of reverence being available. He immediately ordered the remains to be buried quietly. In vain did Kubinyi argue that the planned chapels would be worthy places of rest for them, the political situation still did not allow that the grave of the only identified king of the Árpád dynasty be buried in the museum of the nation, in such an exposed place. The remains of the royal couple were buried in the baroque crypt of the Matthias Church on 10 July 1862 in a simple funeral ceremony celebrated by archbishop of Esztergom János Scitovszky. The memorial service was held a year later on 26 March 1863 when a (new) verification process at the Academy of Sciences had confirmed that the remains did belong to Béla III and his wife.
Owing to the reconstruction of the Matthias Church begun under Frigyes Schulek’s guidance in 1873, the remains were transferred to the Anthropological Institute in 1883 where the director Aurl Török put them to scrutiny. The protraction of the renovation also kept putting off the case of reburial. The consecration of the church took place in 1896 as part of the millenary festivities. However, the theme of the festive series was much more Francis Joseph I and the restored Hungarian constitutionalism than the thousand-year-old Hungarian state, consequently the ceremonious reburial of Béla III was left out of the program, although it had been called for by the press. After 1896 at last Aurél Török launched a press campaign and a parliamentary interpellation on 13 February 1897 cata lyzed the events. Under the leadership of Prime Minister Dezső Bánffy the minister of religion and public education Gyula Wlassics organized the royal reburial in cooperation with the Monuments Commission and the building committee of the church. After a long debate the funerary monument was built in the Holy Trinity chapel of the upper church after plans by Frigyes Schulek. (At the beginning Schulek designed a more modest tomb for the crypt, but now it was out of the question.) He took the carvings of French portal pediments (Chartres, Arles) as his models. The sculptural work was done by Ferenc Mikula. A genealogical table on the monument announced that Francis Joseph I descended from the Árpád dynasty on female line. This reference is also included in the royal deed of gift by which the king granted 25 000 florins for the monument and the burial. At last on 21 October 1898 the ceremonious burial took place as a national holiday, officiated by archbishop of Esztergom Kolos Vaszary.
cathédrale archiepiscopale d’Esztergom en Hongrie au XIIe siècle ’ in B Fourniel (ed), La justice dans les cités épiscopales du Moyen Âge à la fin de l’Ancien Régime (PU Toulouse 1-Capitole 2014 ) 241 – 260
PROF. FERENC PAULIK Ph.D.; D.Sc.
It is our sad and hard duty to let you all know that
our beloved teacher and colleague, a world acknowledged scientist, the inventor
of the simultaneous thermal analytical methods, Prof. Paulik passed away on
12th October 2005, at the age of 84.
When we are thinking of him tremendeous recollections
came into our mind. He was a cheerful, humorous, energetic and positive person,
enjoying social activities and life itself, a real charmeur. Prof. Paulik
was a highly educated person, he was very fond of music and fine arts. His
laboratory was a centre of the bustling international scientific life of thermal
analysis, an island behind the iron curtain in the '60s.
After finishing his studies at the Franciscan high
school, in Esztergom he entered the chemical engineer faculty at the Jzsef
Ndor Technical University, Budapest and graduated in 1944. Shortly
after, he became assistant researcher at the Institute of General and Analytical
Chemistry of the same university headed by Prof. L. Erdey. His first research
field was the study of analytical precipitations. He would have needed a Chevenard-type
thermobalance, but since there was no finances available at that time, he
started to build a machine himself. This apparent need motivated him to think
in alternative solutions, and marked a starting point of a great successful
career not only as a scientist but a productive inventor as well. His thermobalance
enabled him to measure small changes in mass. Together with his brother, Jenő,
they increased the accuracy of the measurement by devising the DTG technique
(derivative thermogravimetry). Their ingenuity was in combining TG, DTG and
DTA methods in one instrument, named Derivatograph, that later conquerred
the whole world. With this invention, Hungary had shortly gained monopolistic
position in the thermal world of the '50s.
The instrument was manufactured by the Hungarian
Optical Works (MOM) distributing more than 4000 instruments that makes more
than half of the simultaneous instruments sold all over the world.
This original method
was further developed to TG-DTG-DTA-EGA (1955); derivative thermodilatometry
(DTD 1961); thermo-gas titrimetry (TGT-EGA 1971); quasi-isothermal quasi-isobaric
TG (Q-TG 1971) and DTA (Q-DTA 1985, 1995). He held 27 patents registered in
scientific career was matching his inventor career, as he published
218 papers in international journals. His citation index is more than 2400.
He was the author of 4 scientific books and contributed to another three.
He was the Regional
Editor for Central-Eastern European countries at the Journal of Thermal Analysis
for a long time and he was a member of the Editorial Board of Thermochimica
Acta for many years. He was closely involved in the work of ICTAC straight
from the beginning and, to acknowledge his activity, he was awarded an Honorary
lifetime-membership of the organisation in 1966.
Between 1967-1992 he was the President of the
Thermoanalytical Group of the Hungarian Chemical Society.
He was acknowledged by several awards: Mettler Award
(1972); Kurnakov Medal (1985); Świętosławski Medal (1997); Nray-Szab
Medal (1998); Laureatus Academiae (1999).
He remained active in science till the last moment
of his life.
wife, Elisabeth, was his main support, without whom he would not have been
able to achieve such a remarkable career. Life was kind to him, to grant his
final wish to die with her holding his hand.
Requiescat in pace.
, Esztergom 2014. november 4–6. (Conference of young scholars ont he Migration Period, Esztergom, November 4–6, 2014). Studia ad Archaeologiam Pazmaniensia . A PPKE BTK Régészeti Tanszékének kiadványai 3.2. – Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Bölcsészettudományi
of Hungary. Gold and Silver from the 9th to the 19th Century. Budapest 1986, No. 11 .
15. Magyarország Műemléki Topográfiája. Szerk.: Gerevich Tibor I. kötet. Esztergom 1. rész. Múzeumok, kincstár, könyvtár