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Since the 1960’s two approaches mainly based on ethnical and social differences have been applied in the course of the analysis of the 10th–11th century cemeteries of the Carpathian Basin. However, the social classification of certain cemeteries is problematic. The division considered applicable to the entire 10th–11th century settlement area (tribal and clan aristocracy — middle class — commoners) does not stand its ground anymore; the cemeteries known today cannot be interpreted as their direct archaeological projections. Families or larger communities of equal status or the same social group could have been greatly different regarding their appearance, inheritance, wealth, agricultural practices, and thus their archaeological appearance. The division of sites on ethnical grounds is a similar issue. The new approach focuses on the duration of the cemeteries’ usage, and in connection with this, the number of their graves. I illustrate this with a settlement historical image outlined by the review of the find material of the Tisza—Maros—Körös interfluve. I observed 133 sites in this region which were mostly fractional, ranging from a few graves to dozens of burials. Taking all these aspects into consideration, hereunder I only have an opportunity to briefly outline a picture, according to which the cemeteries of this region are arranged in six larger blocks. Their characteristics are partly different from each-other.

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In recent years the ideological premises and practices of early medieval funerary rituals, which are extremely complex and largely still unexplored, have become a highly topical subject in the field of European historiography. Indeed, from Late Antiquity onwards the presence and integration of different cultural traditions, and the rapid establishment and spread of Christianity led to the development of new social models of behaviour, which are not always easy to decipher, in terms of both settlements and the relationship with death and the forms in which it was represented. While archaeological research allows us to make contact with the material results of these new models of behaviour, it is not always straightforward — particularly for funerary practices — to identify the ensuing system of values and cultural models. In some cases we may suppose that material forms of apparently similar rituals are actually the fruit of different motivations and mental universes. Consequently, there is a strong need to acquire a better understanding of the process of reciprocal acculturation that occurred in the Roman-Byzantine and Germanic worlds between the 5th and 7th centuries in the sphere of funerary rituals and, in particular, the relationship between burials and places of worship, which appears to be the area able to offer the most useful clues regarding the methods and dating of the acquisition of Roman customs — at least on an outward level — by the Langobard elite.

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László Kovács has recently proposed a classification of the 10th–12th-century cemeteries of Hungary and he associated one group of burial grounds with the nomadic campsites of the ancient Hungarians. The present author challenges this view, pointing out that the greater part of the ancient Hungarian population did not pursue a nomadic life-style at the time of the Conquest (895) and that hydrological conditions in the Carpathian Basin made any eastern-type nomadism impossible. Thus, the still nomadic groups of the ancient Hungarian population too became sedentary during the 10th century, meaning that the name given to the cemeteries in question is erroneous.

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Abstract  

The simultaneous determination of multiple actinide isotopes in samples where total quantity is limited can sometimes present a unique challenge for radioanalytical chemists. In this study, re-determination of 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 241Am for soils collected and analyzed approximately three decades ago was the goal, along with direct determination of 241Pu. The soils had been collected in the early 1970’s from a shallow land burial site for radioactive wastes called the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Lab (INL), analyzed for 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 241Am, and any remaining soils after analysis had been archived and stored. We designed an approach to reanalyze the 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 241Am and determine for the first time 241Pu using a combination of traditional and new radioanalytical methodologies. The methods used are described, along with estimates of the limits of detection for gamma-and alpha-spectrometry, and liquid scintillation counting. Comparison of our results to the earlier work documents the ingrowth of 241Am from 241Pu, and demonstrates that the total amount of 241Am activity in these soil samples is greater than would be expected due to ingrowth from 241Pu decay.

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Summary In this study, the thermal properties of agro-flour-filled polybutylene succinate (PBS) bio-composites were investigated. PBS is one of the biodegradable polymers made from the condensation reaction of glycols and dicarboxylic acid and is naturally degraded by natural soil burial system. The thermal properties of the bio-composites were analyzed according to the agro-flour content and mesh size. On increasing agro-flour content, the thermal stability, degradation temperature and derivative thermogravimetric curve (DTGmax) temperature of the bio-composites decreased while the ash content increased. The thermal degradation of the bio-composites was not affected by agro-flour mesh size. The glass transition (T g) and melting (T m) temperatures of the bio-composites were not significantly changed. The storage modulus (E’) of the bio-composites was higher than that of neat PBS, because the incorporation of agro-flour increased the stiffness of the bio-composites. At higher temperatures, E’ of the bio-composites decreased due to the increasing viscosity and chain mobility of neat PBS. The thermal properties of bio-composites have an important effect on the manufacturing system and application methods.

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On 18 March 1893 the opera Toldi by Ödön (Edmund von) Mihalovich (1842–1929) was premiered at the Royal Hungarian Opera House in Budapest. Three month later Ferenc Erkel, founder and single most important composer of the Hungarian national opera died. One of the funeral speeches at his burial was held by Mihalovich. This gesture was meant as a symbolic mounting of the guard on the national operatic scene. However, Toldi, written on a libretto based on Toldi szerelme (Toldi’s Love), the middle epic of János Arany’s Toldi trilogy, proved to be unsuccesful. It was staged again as Toldi’s Love in 1895 after a thorough revision. One cannot overlook the fact that in the newly composed third act Mihalovich wanted to write the loyalist counterpart of the conflictuous third act in Erkel’s Bánk bán. The paper discusses the question whether the first and only opera on a Hungarian text by the solid Wagnerite Mihalovich could at the time fulfil the official national expectations and become the representative national opera of the Millennium, that is, the Thousand Year Jubilee of the Carpathian Basin’s conquest by the Hungarian tribes, celebrated in 1896.

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210Pb,226Ra and137Cs profiles have been measured for sediment cores from three locations in Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, Canada. Compaction of the sediment with depth of burial is taken into account in calculating recent sedimentation rates and age profiles at these locations from the excess210Pb profiles. The rates are 1.803+0.592 cm·y–1 (0.254±0.083 g·cm–2·y–1), 0.101±0.017 cm·y–1 (0.036+0.006 g·cm–2·y–1), and 0.795±0.218 cm·y–1 (0.076±0.021 g·cm–2·y–1). The corresponding fluxes of excess210Pb to sediment/water interface are determined to be 1.652, 0.253, and 1.123 pCi·cm–2·y–1, respectively. The anomalies observed in the radionuclide concentration profiles are attributed to physical mixing. It is postulated that the significantly higher flux of210Pb observed at one of the locations is due to inputs from Trent River which joins the Bay near this location.

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This article is devoted to research of philosophical discussions about animal rights which have affected on content of international law and national legal systems. This has manifested itself in the gradually recognition of the rights of wild and domestic animals. The authors provide classification of these rights and, according to criteria of their scope, distinguish three groups of wild animals and seven groups of domestic animals (companions, circus, agricultural, sport, experimental, zoo and service animals). Domestic animals have both vested rights (protection against cruelty and to a favorable environment) and, to a different extent, the right to good treatment, choice of owner, good health (veterinary care), adequate burial and comfortable transfer – these mainly dependent on the owner’s goodwill. The article includes evidences that the current situation with a different scope of subjective rights of different groups of animals resembles the situation with a different scope of rights of certain groups of population in the age of feudal fragmentation. The authors also comment about gradual change and future of the situation.

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Shallow land burial is routinely used for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Natural processes causing leaching of radionuclides can lead to contamination of surrounding ground water and soil by the radionuclides. The comparative leachability of radionuclides U(nat), 226Ra, 228Ra and Th(nat) from the soil of a radioactive waste disposal site, by ground water was evaluated. The probability of leaching was obtained in the following order Ra (≈77%) > U (≈40%) > Th (≈20%). Observed ratios (OR) were calculated to correlate leachability of radionuclides to that of major cations Ca2+ and Mg2+. The leaching of the radionuclides was seen to be dependent on Ca2+ and SO4 2− leached from the soil. This study provides sitespecific leachability of radionuclides, that can be used as indicator of the tendency for migration or retention in soil. It can play an important role during an unforeseen accident like breach of containment at the waste disposal site leading to contamination of soil and ground water and causing hazard to public via drinking water route.

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Abstract  

Bone is an important mineral source for the entire organism especially for Ca, P, Na and trace elements like Sr, Mg, Zn and it is the reservoir for the storage and mobilization of many important ions required for the metabolic activity of the organism. The concentration of these elements are influenced by the individual diet and the content of some trace elements can be utilized as indicators of the diet of ancient populations. Bones from three differents archaeological sites found in Lombardy, Northern Italy, were investigated: (A) Roman necropolis found in Milan active from the 1st century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D; (B) Burial of the Longobard family found in Campione d'Italia (North of Lombardy) active between the 7th and 9th century A.D.; (C) Medieval necropolis of a Longobard community, found in a village near Cremona (SE of Lombardy) active in the 7th century A.D. Structures of bones and their trace element content seem to put in evidence on some differences in the way of life of the three investigated groups.

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