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The early phase of the ConA-induced inflammatory ascites was studied, with special reference to histamine. Concanavalin A (ConA), a cell-surface binding lectin was injected i.p. (25 mg/kg bw) to mice. After 1 h the animals were killed, the ascitic fluid collected and measured. Other agents were injected s.c., 10 min before the ConA-challenge. Exogenous histamine markedly inhibited the ConA-induced ascites. Release of endogenous vasoactive agents from the mast cells by Compound 48/80 had a similar, but slight effect. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizing agent, and chloropyramine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist was ineffective. Although histamine increases endothelial permeability, it did not enhance the formation of ascitic fluid, on the contrary, it inhibited the ConA-induced ascites, presumably due to its known hypotonic effect. It is concluded that ConA-induced ascites is not mediated by mast cell histamine.

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Abstract  

This paper reports on a study of Reprint Requests (RRs). It is estimated that tens of millions of RRs are mailed each year, most being triggered byCurrent Contents. A sample of RRs generated by three papers, plus a questionnaire-survey of the requesters for one paper, form the basis of this study into language use patterns in the RR genre. English is ubiquitous, German and French infrequent, Russian and Spanish rare. This language data is significant because it provides unit-level language decision making (as opposed to that at other levels). Various applications of RR research are discussed, including its relevance to the issue of Third World Science.

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Abstract  

Primary papers of international relevance do not always get published in media which have good international dissemination. Samples of literature in animal science, judged by scientists active in that subject field, indicate that this discrepancy may be a truly serious one.

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Hope and Satisfaction

Travellers' Letters in Tourism Research

Author: Bertalan Pusztai

Present paper is part of a larger study focusing on a special form of religiously motivated travel. The market leader on the field of religiously motivated organized mass tourism, shortly religious tourism, is Macroworld Pilgrim Travel Agency in Hungary. An important source of present research is the so-called travellers' letters, written feedback addressed to the agency. With the help of more than thousand letters, the author intends to point out some characteristic experiences of contemporary religious tourism.

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A tanulmány közös jellemzőket, valamint megkülönböztető jegyeket azonosít a placebo/nocebo, illetve a szuggesztió jelenségei között. A placebóhatás jobb megértéséhez érdemes figyelembe venni azt, hogy a beteg ember szuggesztiók iránti fogékonysága felfokozott, és egész más szabályok érvényesülnek esetükben a kommunikatív „üzenetek” értelmezésekor, mint a racionális, éber egészséges embernél. Így a napi gyógyító munkában - a placebóhatás jobb kihasználása, illetve a nocebóhatás minimalizálása érdekében - nagyobb szerepet kaphatna a tudatosan alkalmazott szuggesztív kommunikáció, amely a páciensek elvárás-, illetve hitrendszerére hatva a legkülönfélébb testi folyamatokat képes befolyásolni.

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Letters are important traces of Byzantine literary culture, but a comprehensive modern investigation is still lacking. This contribution is a preliminary work to a major project. It deals with certain aspects of Byzantine epistolography from the Late Antiquity to the end of the Byzantine Empire focusing on 1) the tradition of letter and letter-collections and 2) elements that constitute a Byzantine letter (style, forms of address, extent of letters, motifs).

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Disposition kinetics and urinary excretion of ceftriaxone were investigated in healthy crossbred calves after its single intravenous administration (10 mg kg–1). Based on kinetic parameters, an appropriate dosage regimen of ceftriaxone in calves was calculated. The peak plasma level of ceftriaxone at 1 min was 84.0 ± 1.55 μg ml–1 which declined to 0.43 ± 0.05 μg ml1 at 8 h. The value of elimination half-life (t1/2α), volume of distribution Vd (area) and total body clearance (ClB) were 4.39 ± 0.63 h, 1.91 ± 0.19 L kg–1 and 0.31 ± 0.01 L kg–1 h–1, respectively. Approximately 41 per cent of total administered drug was recovered in the urine within 24 h of its administration. The plasma protein binding of ceftriaxone was found to be concentration dependent with an overall mean of 38.55 per cent. The binding capacity of ceftriaxone to plasma proteins and the dissociation rate constant of protein-drug complex were 20.1 × 10–8 ± 18.4 × 10–8 mole g–1 and 1.07 × 10–6 ± 0.52 × 10–6 mole, respectively. An appropriate intravenous dosage regimen of ceftriaxone in cattle would be 12 mg kg–1 repeated at 24 h.

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György Kurtág's music makes extensive musical and extra-musical reference in ways which are often highly personal, yet the instructions which he gives to his performers are very often unclear, ambiguous, or even confusing. Through the examination of a small number of Játékok, centring on the 'Hommage à Tchaikovsky', the author demonstrates the compositional motivations behind some of this music. The discussion covers the use of musical reference and near-quotation, notation and performance physicality. These are also pieces which are situated within a pedagogical framework, and so inspire a particular relationship between the composer and his interpreter. In the 'Hommage à Tchaikovsky', Kurtág's idiosyncratic reinterpretation of the B flat minor Concerto is transformed into a direct engagement with the very physical experience of playing the piano. Through the analysis of complementary works this paper shows how this transmission of personal experience through musical and physical gesture seems crucial to Kurtág's compositional thought.

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Authors: László Makrai, László Fodor, István Hajtós, János Varga and Béla Dénes

Three new serotypes were found among Rhodococcus equi strains, which could not be assigned into any of the seven serotypes of Prescott’s system. Fortythree R. equi strains out of 44 previously nontypable ones isolated in Hungary could be allocated into one of the three new serotypes using the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The three new suggested serotypes are serotype 8 (proposed reference strain: HNCMB-138003), serotype 9 (proposed reference strain: HNCMB-138004) and serotype 10 (proposed reference strain: HNCMB-138005). Hyperimmune sera produced in rabbits against the new serotypes and reference strains gave precipitation only with their homologous antigens, and no crossreactions were observed. All of the previously nontypable isolates from clinical samples of horses (lung abscesses, intestinal lymph nodes, mediastinal lymph nodes) proved to be serotype 8, while strains of serotypes 8, 9 and 10 could be isolated from nasal and rectal swabs of horses and from the soil. Serotype 9 dominated among the previously nontypable strains of swine origin. One of the previously nontypable human strains was serotype 10. This serotype was also isolated from pigs, horses and the soil. The description of the three new serotypes can help us reveal new correlations between the host species, geographical origin and serotype of R. equi isolates.

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