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Glutenin and gliadin subunits play a key role in flour processing quality by network formation in dough. Wild relatives of crops have served as a pool of genetic variation for decades. In this study, 180 accessions from 12 domesticated and wild relatives of wheat were characterized for the glutenin and gliadin genes with allele-specific molecular markers. A total of 24 alleles were detected for the Glu-A3 and Gli-2A loci, which out of 19 amplified products identified as new alleles. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 90 and 65% of the genetic diversity were partitioned within two Aegilops and Triticum genera and their species, respectively. Furthermore, all glutenin and gliadin analyzed loci were polymorphic, indicating large genetic diversity within and between the wild species. Our results revealed that allelic variation of Glu-3A and Gli-As.2 is linked to genomic constitutions so that, Ae. caudata (C genome), Ae. neglecta (UM genome), Ae. umbellulata (U genome) and T. urartu (Au genome) harbor wide variation in the studied subunits. Hence, these species can be used in wheat quality breeding programs.

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Europe is not only the land of origin, but also the principal keeper of social rights, since it is associated with the concept of Europeanism. The obvious social restrictions in Hungary as well as in other countries of Europe in recent years make it absolutely reasonable to examine to what social-economic context the discernible withdrawal of welfare services provided by the state is attributable. The similar manifestations are supported by no means by the same system of social conditions. As to its basis and dating back to its historical origin, the current social policy of the EU is framed in the spirit of the conceptual system of the social state. The Fundamental Rights Charter (just as the “European Constitution Treaty”, as part of which it may become mandatory) does not reflect either the labour society or Europe of the peoples, but the conceptions of the capital, of political classes and eurocracy. Nevertheless: considering the power relations of global capitalism, we need to appreciate as an apparent actuality that in the midst of these relations the charter insists not only on the requirement of European unity, but also on a modernised version of the social conceptual system. The purpose of this treatise has been to highlight that social objectives cannot be treated as isolated from their economic and social context. We should not risk balance by the maintenance and preservation of a social-organisational framework via overspending, which altogether contradicts the possibility of development and the sustainability of equilibrated development.

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Treating people as equals is one of the main aims of constitutional democracies. Numerous examples prove the adverse effects if a state violates the equality principles relating to ethnic minorities and religious groups. Here is a lesson from Hungary. The Hungarian Constitutional Court (hereinafter: HCC) is not engaged in adjudicating concrete ‘cases and controversies’, but seemingly reviews the constitutionality of laws. The Constitution lays down the fundamental tenets relating to religious groups, churches, ethnic minorities and the principles of equality in general. Thus, the question is how the problems of religions and minorities are reflected in the constitutional case-law.The main theses of this article are following. First, based on historical facts the HCC provides preferential treatment for so-called historical churches. Second, in cases involving Roma the HCC does not consider the historical facts and social reality thus, the discrimination of Roma does not appear in the jurisprudence. Third, the unequal protection of churches and Roma by the state results in advantages being provided where the constitutional reasons of preferential treatment are absent while the state remains inactive where the promotion of the principles of equality would be most necessary.

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The article examines the new trends of Hungarian constitutionalism, which have been realized in the new Fundamental Law and that raises some questions with regard to, among other things, the hierarchy of sources of law. Especially the cardinal laws have been the subject of criticisms both within the Hungarian doctrine that by experts in constitutional law and international organizations in the Western world. From the point of view of comparative constitutional law, it should be noted that reinforced laws are provided in many constitutions, in both Western and Eastern Europe. In order to better understand the role of cardinal laws is useful to consider, first of all and in addition to the new Fundamental Law, the system of pre-existing organic laws of Hungary. Furthermore, it is also interesting to consider, on the one hand, the first cardinal laws approved, and, on the other hand, the orientations of the Hungarian Constitutional Court on organic laws prior to the adoption of the new Fundamental Law.

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“The right of poor persons” or legal aid, as part of the free access to justice and a fundamental right of the citizens, represents one of the most important components of the right to defence in proceedings brought before the European Union’s courts, if we include also the exemption of taxes and other financial obligations that can be ordered whenever individuals for financial reasons, cannot afford hiring a lawyer, no matter the object of the dispute, such as: civil, labour, administrative etc.This right is provided for both in the European primary and secondary legislation, including in Article 47 para. 3 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, and also at the national level, namely in the national constitutions and legislations of the 28 Member States.Establishing minimum common rules relating to legal aid for disputes by the Council Directive 2003/8/EC in January 2003 to improve access to justice in cross-border disputes is considered to be a cornerstone in respecting the principle of a good representation of the individuals in front of the European courts, pointing out the humanism of the European judicial system.

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Az esszé a magyar társadalom, gazdaság és politika elemzését adja – nemzetközi kitekintéssel, a hazai adatok, tendenciák, trendek bemutatásával – a munkaügyi törvénykezést (a Munka Törvénykönyvét és az egész közszolgálati jogszabály-dzsungelt) alapjaiban megváltoztató kormányzati tervekkel és törvényi normaszöveggel összefüggésben. Az elemzés – munkavállalói szempontok kiemelt szerepeltetésével – részletesen foglalkozik az új Munka Törvénykönyvvel. A szerző az alkotmányozás, az állami szerep módosulása, a társadalmi egyeztetés átalakítása és egyéb törvények folyamatába ágyazza az MT tervezetét. Ebben a gondolatrendszerben fogalmazza meg javaslatait a kormányzati tervekkel szemben.

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Az esszé a magyar társadalom, gazdaság és politika elemzését adja – nemzetközi kitekintéssel, a hazai adatok, tendenciák, trendek bemutatásával – a munkaügyi törvénykezést (a Munka Törvénykönyvét és az egész közszolgálati jogszabálydzsungelt) alapjaiban megváltoztató kormányzati döntésekkel összefüggésben. A tanulmány – munkavállalói szempontok kiemelt szerepelte­tésével – részletesen foglalkozik az új Munka Törvénykönyvvel. A szerző az alkotmányozás, az állami szerep módosulása, a társadalmi egyeztetés átalakítása és egyéb törvények folyamatába ágyazza az MT elemzését. Ebben a gondolatrendszerben fogalmazza meg kezdeményezéseit, javaslatait is a kormányzati döntésekkel szemben.

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Abstract  

Thermal decomposition of magnesium salts of organic acids used in medicine (Mg acetate, Mg valproate, Mg lactate, Mg citrate, Mg hydrogen aspartate, Zn hydrogen aspartate) was analyzed by thermoanalytical, calorimetrical, and computational methods. Thermoanalytical studies were performed with aid of a derivatograph. 50-, 100-, and 200-mg samples were heated in a static air atmosphere at a heating rate of 3, 5, 10, and 15 °C min−1 up to the final temperature of 700–900 °C. By differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetry (TG), and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) methods, it has been established that thermal decomposition of the salts under study occurs via two stages. The first stage (dehydratation) was distinctly marked on the thermoanalytical curves. Calorimetrical studies were carried out by using of a heat-flux Mettler Toledo differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) system. Ten milligram samples of compounds under study were heated in the temperature range from 20 to 400 °C at a heating rate of 10 and 20 °C min−1 under an air stream. The studies showed that the values of transitions heats and enthalpies of dehydration for investigated salts varied with the increasing of heating rate. For chemometric evaluation of thermoanalytical results, the principal component analysis (PCA) was applied. This method revealed that points on PC1 versus PC2 diagrams corresponding to the compounds of similar chemical constitution are localized in the similar ranges of the first two PC’s values. This proves that thermal decomposition reflects similarity in the structure of magnesium salts of organic acids.

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Granular activated carbon loaded with aniline,o-nitroaniline oro-nitrophenol, regenerated at relatively low temperature (450° in N2 atmosphere), shows losses of cyclic adsorption performances (about 5 % per cycle) comparable to those occurring with standard thermal regeneration (950° in controlled atmosphere). Adsorbate build-ups and related surface modifications have been determined.

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Abstract  

The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of some monovalent counter-ions (NH4 +, K+ and Cs+) on thermal behavior of polyoxometalates derived from H3PMo12O40 (HPM) and H4PVMo11O40 (HPVM) by replacing the protons. The IR and UV-VIS-DRS spectra of some acid and neutral NH4 +, K+, Cs+ salts, which derived from HPM and HPVM, confirmed the preservation of Keggin units (KU) structure. The X-ray diffraction spectra clearly showed the presence of a cubic structure. The non-isothermal decomposition of studied polyoxometalates proceeds by a series of processes: the loss of crystallization water; the loss of O2 accompanying with a reduction of V5+→V4+ and Mo6+→Mo5+; the loss of constitution water started at 360C for HPVM salts and 420C for HPM salts; the decomposition of ammonium ion over 420C with NH3, N2 and H2O elimination and simultaneous processes of reduction (V5+→ V4+ and Mo6+→ Mo5+ or Mo4+) associating with endothermic effects; reoxidation of Mo5+, Mo4+ and V4+with a strong exothermic effect; destruction of KU to the oxides: P2O5, MoO3 and V2O5 and the crystallization of MoO3.

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