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individuals are at a high risk of Lm infection with systemic dissemination [ 5, 6 ]. Upon ingestion of Lm in individuals from these risk groups, Lm penetrates through the intestinal epithelial barrier. Subsequent to the internalization into epithelial

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Teresa Karpińska, Wojciech Kozaczyński, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Agnieszka Jasik, Anna Kycko and Michał Reichert

): Medical dilemmas associated with rehabilitating confiscated Houbara Bustard ( Chlamydotis undulatamacqueenii ) after avian pox and paramyxoviruses type 1 infection. J. Wildl. Dis. 38 , 518–532. Launay F

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40 Gray, J. J.: Avidity of EBV-VCA specific IgG antibodies: Distinction between recent primary infection, past infection and reactivation. J. Virol. Methods 52 , 95–104 (1995

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Katalin Szomor, Zita Rigó, Enikő Bán, Lívia Nagy, Teodóra Szalkai, Zsuzsanna Balogh, Emőke Ferenczi and Mária Takács

., Torrents, R., Leitmeyer, K., Hilairet, P., Zeller, H., Van Bortel, W., Dejour-Salamanca, D., Grandadam, M., Gastellu-Etchegorry, M.: First two autochthonous dengue virus infections in metropolitan France, September 2010. Euro Surveill. 15 , 19676 (2010

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C.M. Vandenbroucke-Grauls 2004 New developments in the diagnosis of bloodstream infections Lancet Infect Dis 4 751 760

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Pittet, D., Tarara, D., Wenzel, R. P.: Nosocomial bloodstream infection in critically ill patient. Excess length stay, extra cost, and attributable mortality. JAMA 271 , 1598–1601 (1994

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Myiasis is caused by the larval stages of flies feeding on live or dead mammalian tissues and fluids. Human cases involving the genitourinary system are very rare and present with unusual symptoms.We report the case of a male, 25-year-old shepherd who underwent a surgical intervention on his urinary tract for renal lithiasis and was catheterized with a drain dwelling in his left kidney. A few days after the patient showed signs of dysuria, polyuria and pollakisuria. Lower urinary tract infection with ciprofloxacin susceptible E. coli was diagnosed and treated accordingly. The symptoms persisted and, a few days later, fly maggots were released repeatedly in the urine of the patient and sent for investigation. Macroscopic analysis and microscopy were performed. We detected 3–4 mm long, dorso-ventrally flattened white live fly larvae with lateral projections, typical for Fannia (Diptera: Fannidae) genus. Identification on a species level could not be performed as larva feeding facilities or specific DNA based methods were not available for us.Even if maggot urinary tract infestations are extremely rare in Europe, we should consider them in order to provide a rapid and correct diagnosis followed by an adequate treatment.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: A. Pár, Mária Takács, Judit Brojnás, Gy. Berencsi, Mária Paál, Margit Horányi, A. Miseta, G. Hegedűs, Gy. Mózsik and B. Hunyady

Thomas, D. L., Astenborski, D., Rai, R. M., Anania, F. A., Schaeffer, M., Galai, N.: Natural history of hepatitis C virus infection. Host, viral and environmental factors. JAMA 284 , 480-486 (2000

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Mehrdad Mohammadi, Jila Yavarian, Vajihe Karbasizade, Sharareh Moghim, Bahram Nasr Esfahani and Nafiseh Sadat Hosseini

Introduction Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are the frequently diagnosed diseases for hospitalization, particularly in infants and young children [ 1 , 2 ]. The disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Ilona Mihály, Zsuzsanna Arányi, Gyula Prinz, Adrienne Lukács, Tímea Kolozsi, Zoltán Liptai, Ágota Bábinszky, Imre Kodaj, Dóra Petik and Gábor Lázár

.: Congenital cytomegalovirus disease. [Veleszületett cytomegalovirus betegség.] Orv. Hetil., 1980, 121 (19), 1129–1136. [Hungarian] Kristóf, K., Latkóczy, K., Rozgonyi, F.: Microbiological and infection serological

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