Free access to information is considered to be one of the most important fundamental political rights of citizens. Free access to information has a long history originating in Sweden in the 18th century and has since then been incrementally constitutionalised in most of the democratic countries. It is worth studying the fact that legislation regulating this question in European Union legal systems, and in the Czech Republic as well, started much later — fifteen years ago at the beginning of the millennium. Even though the age of both the acts — EU (the Regulation of the European Parliament and the Council (EC) No. 1049/2001 of 30 May 2001 regarding public access to European Parliament, Council and Commission documents) and Czech (the Act (CZ) on Free Access to Information No. 106/1999) is the same, the legislation itself differs significantly and they both have legal shortcomings. The analysis of the EU legislation granting free access to information of the EU institutions from the Czech perspective brings interesting and inspiring ideas for reforms — especially of the EU legislation.
The fruit bodies of wild-growing higher fungi (macromycetes), commonly called mushrooms, of various genera and species collected in localities with different geochemical features and man-made burden in the Czech Republic were analyzed by different modes of activation analysis. The elements Na, Mg, Al, S, Cl, K, Ti, V, Mn, Cu, Br, Ba and Dy were determined by short-term instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Short-term epithermal INAA (ENAA) was used for determination of I and other elements, such as Rb, Ag, and U. The elements Na, K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Hf, Au, Hg and Th were determined by long-term INAA, whereas long-term ENAA enabled determination of several other elements, such as Ni, Ta, W and U. The analytical possibilities of instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) using a microtron were also explored and found useful for determination of several additional elements, namely Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, and Pb. High concentrations of several essential and toxic trace elements found (up to hundreds of mg.g-1, dry mass) should be of concern in nutritional studies, because mushrooms form non-negligible part of diet in many countries, especially in Middle and East Europe.
Authors:M. Vinš, L. Viererbl, Z. Lahodová, M. Marek, A. Voljanskij, V. Klupák and M. Koleska
This contribution compares measured neutron energy spectra and neutron fluence rates in the LVR-15 reactor core fully equipped
with IRT2M nuclear fuel (enrichment 36% of 235U in the form of UO2) and then with a partially replaced core equipped with three IRT4M nuclear fuel assemblies (enrichment 19.7%). The measurements
were performed in the LVR-15 reactor at Research Center Rez Ltd. in the Czech Republic, and were related to a planned transition
to low-enriched nuclear fuel within the scope of the RERTR programme. An activation method was chosen for the neutron spectrum
measurement. Iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, titanium, iridium and niobium foils were irradiated at four positions near the
replaced fuel assemblies. Reaction rates for observed reaction channels were determined using gamma spectroscopy. Reaction
rates along the height of the reactor core at the same positions were determined using iron, nickel, and cobalt foils. The
SAND-II and STAYNL computer programs were used for neutron spectrum adjustment, and input approximation for both programs
was calculated using MCNPX (v2.6). The results include a comparison of theoretical and measured data. Differences were found
between thermal neutron fluence rates inside IRT2M fuel assemblies and IRT4M fuel. This difference was predicted by preliminary
calculations, but it becomes less significant as distance from fuel assemblies increases.
Authors:K. Zemanová, H. Čížková, K. Edwards and H. Šantrůčková
Data on soil respiration of three wet meadow ecosystems in the Czech Republic are presented. There were three study sites: two sites with peaty soil, one of them aneutrophic (nitrogen rich) and second of them oligotrophic. Third site was mesotrophic with mineral soil. Soil respiration was measured
efflux using a Licor 6400 equipped with a soil chamber during the vegetation seasons, since June until October 2006. Soil respiration rates were significantly affected by soil temperature, although they differed among the sites, just as nutrient availability differed on each site. Despite of seasonal variation, the nutrient rich site on organic soil consistently yielded the highest respiration rates, and nutrient poor site yielded the lowest respiration rates. The highest CO
were measured in June, when the soil temperature was 19°C. The rates reached up to 10.31 μmol CO
at eutrophic site, at peaty oligotrophic site 7.03 μmol CO
, and 8.38 μmol CO
at mineral mesotrophic site, respectively. When we used a temperature dependency exponential model to avoid the effect of different soil temperature, the pattern observed in the field was even clearer. The peaty eutrophic soil was more sensitive to temperature then the mineral and peaty oligotrophic soil and C mineralization was more enhanced there.
Az Egészségügyi Világszervezet és az Európa Tanács javaslatára folyamatosan mérik, illetve becsülik Európa légszennyezettségét, ezen belül a 10 és a 2,5 mikronnál kisebb szemcseméretű szállópor-koncentrációt. A 2,5 mikronnál kisebb szemcseméretű, különösen káros hatású szennyezettség kimagasló Közép- és Kelet-Európában, ezen belül főként Magyarország középső és keleti területein. Epidemiológiai elemzések szerint a 2,5 mikronnál kisebb részecskekoncentráció egyértelmű összefüggést mutat a cardiopulmonalis megbetegedések és a tüdőrák incidenciájával. A hazai levegő szennyezettsége is hozzájárulhat ahhoz, hogy Magyarországon a népességszám figyelembevétele után is másfél-kétszer nagyobb a cardiopulmonalis és tüdőrák-mortalitással kapcsolatos életévveszteség, mint például az egyébként hasonló történelmi-gazdasági adottságokkal bíró Szlovákiában vagy Csehországban. Orv. Hetil., 2012, 153, 285–288.
Authors:V. Kyrova, V. Ostry, L. Laichmannova and J. Ruprich
Genetically modified (GM) plants are obtained by adding to them one or more foreign genes that encode new properties, such as tolerance to herbicides, resistance to insects and the ability to produce new substances. The aim of this study was the detection and identification of GM foodstuffs. Six different types of samples (soybeans, soya products, tomatoes, maize flour, rice and papaya) were collected at 12 places in the Czech Republic during the years 2002–2007. It represents a total of 1225 samples of foodstuffs.Samples were investigated for the presence of material derived from the following genetically modified organisms (GMOs) which are approved for food use in the European Union (EU): Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize lines Bt176, Bt11, T25, GA21, MON810, DAS1507 and some non-approved in the EU: maize lines Bt10 and starlink, rice, tomatoes and papaya. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used for the detection of GM foods.RRS was detected in 14 (4.9%) samples of soybean out of 288 and in 88 (30.5%) soya products out of 288 samples. The amount of RRS in positive samples was determined by quantitative PCR. The content was in the range of 0.01–75.3% RRS. GM maize was detected in 5 (1.7%) of 288 samples. Maize lines MON810, Bt176 and StarLink were detected in the maize samples. GM rice was detected in 2 (1.9%) samples out of 102. All investigated tomatoes and papaya samples were negative for detection of GM.
Ing. Zdeněk Šolc, CSc (21 September 1931–30 September 2006)
Prof. Zdeněk Šolc was born in 1931. After finishing his university
studies, he joined the University of Pardubice where he remained for more
than 50 years. He started to work at the Department of Physical Chemistry.
His main fields of interest were: preparation of monocrystals, crystallization
from solutions, measuring of physical and chemical properties of solutions.
In the 1960's he turned to inorganic technology, studying inoranic pigments
and he moved to the Department of Inorganic Technology. In this vast area
of science, he achieved his greatest successes, and pigments became his ever-lasting
passion up to the end of his life.
The research in the field of
crystallisation was oriented to development of liquid crystals for use in
temperature indication, and materials for integrated circuits; besides that
a school of inorganic pigments was formed (M. Trojan, Z. Šolc, D. Brandov)
whose main orientation is mixed oxide materials for use in ceramics and enamels.
A predominant part of the mentioned research activities was pursued at KAnT
in 1990–1996, when the Department was headed by Professor Ing. Zdeněk
Most of Prof. ŠolcŠs projects were focused
on the reactivity of inorganic pigments and powder materials, research of
their high-temperature syntheses and rating of their physical and chemical
properties. He applied mainly simultaneous thermal analytical techniques:
thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis using dynamic measuring conditions
and quasi-isothermal and quasi-isobaric ones, moreover emanation thermal analysis
and thermal conductivity measurements.
Prof. Zdeněk Šolc
was a creative scientist. He published more than 50 scientific papers in international
journals and wrote 10 textbooks. He was the author of almost 100 lectures
of conferences held in the Czech Republic and foreign countries.
had a silent but a very kind personality and he will be missed very much both
by the local and the international communities.
Fruitbodies of wild-growing macromycetes (mushrooms) of various genera and species collected in localities with different geochemical features and man-made burden in the Czech Republic were analyzed using the short-term instrumental neutron activation, with both thermal and epithermal neutrons. Analytical possibilities of these methods were compared. Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, V, Mn, Cu, and Br were determined regularly, whereas S, Ti, Rb, Cs, Ba, and Dy were determined occasionally with thermal neutron activation at irradiation-decay-counting times mode of 1-10-10 minutes. Because of high concentration of K and P in the macromycete dry matter (2-7% and 0.5-1%, respectively) and also high Cl concentration in some genera (up to 2.5%), all “1/v” absorbers, epithermal neutron activation in Cd box (1 mm thick wall) substantially suppresses their macroactivities and enhances sensitivity in the determination of elements with significant resonance integrals. Cu, Se, Rb, Ag, Hf, and sometimes Ba are determinable in the mode of 60-30-60 seconds, while K, Cu, As, Br, Rb, In, I, U (in some species also Co, Zn, Cs, Ba, and Hg) in the mode of 1-13-13 minutes. However, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, and Mn determination is not possible this way, as the (n,p) and (n,α) interfering reactions with fast neutrons and high K, P, and other interfering elements content make great interference contributions. Information about content of the essential and toxic elements in mushrooms is important in nutritional studies, because mushrooms form a non-negligible part of diet in many countries.
Authors:T. Picek, E. Kaštovská, K. Edwards, K. Zemanová and J. Dušek
Plant biomass production, soil chemical and microbial parameters, microbial processes of C and N cycle and gases emissions were studied in soils at two types of grasslands (wet meadows). Both sites are situated in the Czech Republic: (1) a nutrient poor sedge meadow on organic soil (Z) and (2) a mesotrophic sedge-sweet grass meadow on mineral soil (H). Eutrophication was simulated by the application of NPK fertilizer to selected permanent plots in 2006 and 2007 in amounts of 9 kg N + 4 kg P ha
(low dose) and 45 kg N + 20 kg P ha
(high dose). After two years of fertilizer application, we observed an increase in net aboveground plant production (about 9–12 kg ha
) connected with an increase in shoot:root ratio in fertilized plots of both sites, with more pronounced changes in oligotrophic sedge meadow. Total CO
efflux from the ecosystem measured in situ was significantly higher at fertilized plots as well as increase in total soil respiration in case of sedge meadow, but we found no significant effect of fertilization on CO
efflux from the system at mesotrophic site. Surprisingly, other parameters, like soil microbial biomass C and N content, the rates of respiration, denitrification, nitrification, nitrogen mineralization and nitrogen assimilation were not affected by fertilization. In conclusion, an interesting finding is that despite non significant impact on aboveground component there were significant responses in belowground part which suggest that belowground processes may be suitable early warning signals. Peaty oligotrophic soil seems to be more sensitive to nutrient addition than mineral soil. However, final effect of fertilization on ecosystem C balance stays unknown and longer study is necessary to draw explicit conclusion.