Authors:Aleksandra Trościańczyk, Aneta Nowakiewicz, Sebastian Gnat, Magdalena Wójcik, Sylwia Wdowiak-Wróbel and Michał Kalita
, tet M), chloramphenicol [ cat (pC221), cat (pC194), cat (pC223)], and aminoglycosides [ aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia, aph(3′)-IIIa ] as well as genes encoding virulence factors: enterotoxins ( se A, se B, se C, se D, se E), shock syndrome toxin ( tst
predator–prey system could be present.
Virulence is used to be mentioned in pathogenic bacteria or protozoa. These have virulence factors, which stimulate their infectivity and aggressivity. Tetrahymena itself, in general, is not pathogenic; however
Tóth, I., Schmidt, H., Kardos, G., Lancz, Z., Creuzburg, K., Damjanova, I., Pászti, J., Beutin, L. and Nagy, B. (2009): Virulence genes and molecular typing of different groups of Escherichia coli O157 strains in cattle. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75
Authors:Ayat Moradipour, Afra Khosravi and Fatemeh Piri
continued process, the chronic gastritis is created. These conditions in different patients may lead to gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, or gastric cancer, depending on virulence factors, host genetic factors and, as previously stated, the host immune
The virulence frequency of 750 wheat powdery mildew isolates of wheat genotypes, carrying 23 Pm-genes and gene combinations, was studied over ten consecutive years from 2004 to 2013. Seventy-eight previously known and 39 new pathotypes were identified during this period. The results indicate that the majority of Pm-genes have high level of virulence. Sixty to ninety percent of the isolates were virulent to Pm6, Pm8, Pm8+11, Pm2+4b+8, Pm3g, Pm10+15, Pm10+14+15. The virulence frequency was variable for Pm1a, Pm2, Pm3a, Pm3b, Pm3c, Pm5, Pm7 genes and reached high level in certain years. The virulence frequency to genes Pm20, Pm37, Pm4a+ and to gene combination with Pm3c+5a+35 and breeding lines CN240/06, CN98/06 and CN158/06 ranged from 1 to 8%. Bread wheat lines CN240/06, CN98/06 and CN158/06, derived from interspecific crosses, proved to be highly resistant to powdery mildew.
Authors:Fiona Doohan, Chan Arunachalam, Shumei Jiang, Mojibur Khan, Damian Egan, Guillaume Erard and Stephanie Walter
mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a potent inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis and acts as a virulence factor during infection of wheat heads. Some wheat genotypes can tolerate DON and resist its deleterious effects; others cannot. Transcriptome studies identified several genes up-regulated in spikelets of the DON-resistant wheat cultivar CM82036 in response to DON treatment. We will discuss how the finding presented herein and other recent findings contribute to the hypothesis that management of hormone homeostasis and alleviation of oxidative stress in DON-challenged wheat might facilitate cell survival and thereby retard fungal colonisation.