Authors:Katarzyna Stachowiak-Szymczak and Paweł Korpal
Simultaneous interpreting is a cognitively demanding task, based on performing several activities concurrently (Gile 1995; Seeber 2011). While multitasking itself is challenging, there are numerous tasks which make interpreting even more difficult, such as rendering of numbers and proper names, or dealing with a speaker's strong accent (Gile 2009). Among these, number interpreting is cognitively taxing since numerical data cannot be derived from the context and it needs to be rendered in a word-to-word manner (Mazza 2001). In our study, we aimed to examine cognitive load involved in number interpreting and to verify whether access to visual materials in the form of slides increases number interpreting accuracy in simultaneous interpreting performed by professional interpreters (N = 26) and interpreting trainees (N = 22). We used a remote EyeLink 1000+ eye-tracker to measure fixation count, mean fixation duration, and gaze time. The participants interpreted two short speeches from English into Polish, both containing 10 numerals. Slides were provided for one of the presentations. Our results show that novices are characterised by longer fixations and they provide a less accurate interpretation than professional interpreters. In addition, access to slides increases number interpreting accuracy. The results obtained might be a valuable contribution to studies on visual processing in simultaneous interpreting, number interpreting as a competence, as well as interpreter training.
This paper is the first in what aims to be a series of papers toward a new decipherment and linguistic reconstruction of the Kitan Assembled Script Eulogy for Empress Xuanyi of 1101 A.D. In my treatment of this inscription, I have attempted to juxtapose the Kitan text and its very roughly corresponding Chinese text as much as possible, to allow for greater accuracy in decipherment and reconstruction. This methodology has allowed me to identify several words with previously unnoticed Mongolic cognates.
This paper aims to examine gender differences in hedging in Chinese–English conference interpreting based on a transcribed parallel corpus. The point of departure was to test Holmes’s (1986, 1988a) claims that women do not necessarily employ more hedges than men but that women’s use of hedges tends to focus more on interpersonal relationships while men’s is more on propositional precision. Hyland’s (1996a, 1996b) model in which hedges were categorized into accuracy-oriented, speaker-oriented and audience-oriented, has been adapted for this end. Our finding shows that male interpreters actually employ more hedges than their female counterparts on the whole. In particular, their accuracy-oriented and speaker-oriented hedges exceed those of female interpreters, but not for audience-oriented ones. To find out whether these differences were caused by the source texts per se or by interpreters’ manipulation, we named four types of interpreting approach towards hedge items: direct transfer, indirect transfer, shift and addition. The former two types were identified as source text interference while the latter two as interpreters’ manipulation. The results indicate that male interpreters exceed female interpreters in terms of shift and addition cases in all three types of hedges. The findings of the present study contribute to a more profound understanding of gender difference in language mediation and also have implications for future interpreter training.
Zhong, Y. 2002. Transcending the Discourse of Accuracy in the Teaching of Translation. Meta: Translators' Journal Vol. 47. No. 4. 575-585.
Transcending the Discourse of Accuracy in the Teaching of Translation
The life-story of Derviş bey can be reconstructed with unusual accuracy. He came from an influential family, the Yahyapaşazade clan of Albanian origin. His father, Küçük Bali had a house in Jagodina. Derviş must have born around 1500 since he is mentioned as a tmar-holder in the sancak of Zvornik as early as 1519. When his father became the beylerbeyi of Buda in 1542, Derviş was appointed commander of the Danube flotilla, a new post created specifically for him. When Szeged was taken early in 1543, he was elected to be the first district governor there. On 28 January 1545, he was nominated sancakbeyi of Székesfehérvár (İstolni Belgrad). In late 1547 he was sent to administer the liva of Mohács. He held this office for almost 10 years, an exceptionally long period. His many duties can be illustrated by several hitherto unknown orders which were sent to him. At the same time, he did not forget Jagodina where he had a cami built and where – as Hans Dernschwam reported – he also settled some Hungarians. This is shown by a defter of Szendrő (Smederovo), in which several individuals with Hungarian names were registered.
On 4 February 1557, he was appointed to Avlonya, partly as a punishment for the unsuccessful siege of Szigetvár in 1556. Four days later, however, he was allowed to return to Szeged. As in Pécs, he was again charged with the preparation of the new cadastral surveys of some of the Hungarian sancaks.
Derviş bey vanishes from sight around 1560/1561. In all likelihood he died either in Hungary or on his way to Jagodina.
Authors:Pier Marco Bertinetto, Chiara Finocchiaro, and Clara Rastelli
three lexical variables. In order to evaluate the model, accuracy was chosen as metric performance in a repeated K-fold cross-validation with 3 folds and 10 repeats. The chance level varies according to the number of conditions: 25% for experiment 1, 33