Authors:Zofia Drzazga, Katarzyna Michalik, Tomasz Halat, Anna Michnik, and Henryk Trzeciak
Differential scanning microcalorimetry (DSC) and UV–VIS absorption spectroscopy were used to obtain the characteristics of
blood serum from newborn rat’ after maternal treatment with cyclophosphamide in comparison with control. The obtained DSC
curves reveal a complex endothermic peak due to the unfolding process of various serum proteins. Thermal profiles and absorption
spectra of blood serum are sensitive to the age of newborns as well as to effect of maternal administration of cyclophosphamide.
The most significant disturbances in serum proteome were observed for 14-day old newborns. The thermodynamic parameters: enthalpy
change (∆H), the normalized first moment (M1) of the thermal transition with respect to the temperature axis and the ratio of Cpex at 70 and 60 °C describing denaturation contributions of globulin forms in respect to unliganded albumin with haptoglobin
was estimated. Moreover, the second derivative spectroscopy in the UV region was used to resolve the complex protein spectrum.
The differences in blood serum detected by DSC and UV–VIS confirm a potential usefulness of these methods for diagnostic and
monitoring changes with age as well as the pathological state of blood serum.
Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to determine 15 trace elements in twelve blood serum samples taken from healthy students at Bilkent University in Ankara. The method allowed the determination of Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Rb, Cs, Ce, Eu, Tb, Hf, Ta and Hg, which occur at the g.ml–1 to ng.ml–1 levels. There are no values reported for Tb, Hf, Ce, Eu and Ta before. The other results are compared with the values reported in the literature. Most are in the range of the reported values except for Fe, Zn, Se and Cs.
Direct determination of selenium in biological tissues by X-ray emission spectroscopy is not possible due to the limited sensitivity of all modes of sample excitation. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a preconcentration procedure to bring selenium to detectable level. In this paper a rapid and simple chemical preparation procedure including coprecipitation with APDC for the analysis of selenium in blood serum by X-ray emission spectroscopy is described.
Authors:C. Sunta, H. Dang, D. Jaiswal, and S. Soman
Neutron activation followed by a simple radio-chemical separation procedure was employed to determine the concentrations of thorium (232Th) in human blood serum, clot, and urine of normal subjects and three groups of occupationally exposed persons. The thorium concentrations in the blood serum, clot, and urine samples of the exposed groups were distinctly higher than those of the other study groups and were found to increase with increasing occupational length of the persons. Daily urinary excretion is correlated with serum thorium burden and it is estimated that the daily excreted thorium is about 15% of the thorium in the serum pool.
Authors:A. Michnik, Z. Drzazga, K. Michalik, A. Barczyk, I. Santura, E. Sozańska, and W. Pierzchała
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been applied for studies of blood serum from patients sick with chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease (COPD). The denaturation of serum proceeds as endothermic process over the temperature range 45–85 °C. Distinct
changes in the shape of DSC curves have been observed for serum from patients with severe stage of COPD (treated with inhaled
corticosteroids) relative to serum from healthy individuals. The first moment of the thermal transition with respect to the
temperature axis shifts from the normal value of 63.9 ± 0.3 to 65.3 ± 0.7 °C and to 67.6 ± 1.6 °C for early and advanced stages
of disease, respectively. The results of our studies suggest age dependence of blood serum denaturation transition.
Authors:H. Nakahara, Y. Nagame, Y. Yoshizawa, H. Oda, S. Gotoh, and Y. Murakami
An attempt was made to see if there is any correlation between the trace element concentrations in the human blood serum and
some specific disease. The serum samples of the patients suffering from cancer, Down syndrome, and Banti syndrome were analyzed
by the neutron activation method and compared with the trace element concentrations observed among the clinically healthy
men. The cancer patients gave below normal concentrations in Rb, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Al and Se. The Down syndrome patients
were found to have similar deficiencies in Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Cu and Sb.
Authors:JongHwa Moon, SangHoon Kang, YongSam Chung, and OkHee Lee
Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to assess the concentration of the inorganic trace elements in Korean women’s
blood serums. It was found that a high concentration of Na and Cl incurs an analytical interference, but the 12 elements such
as Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Se and Zn could be determined under the condition of an interference minimization.
Serum samples collected from 63 women were analyzed and the concentration level and range of the elements were evaluated.
NIST SRMs were analyzed simultaneously for quality control. The average values of the Na and Cl determined in the serum samples
were 3,365 and 3,533 mg/l, Ca was 96.4 mg/l and K was 191 mg/l. Besides, Br, Se and Zn have a concentration level of 6.46,
0.13 and 0.98 mg/l, respectively. It was found that there is no significant difference between the present values and the
Authors:E. Preoteasa, Maria Salagean, Ana Pantelica, D. Plostinaru, B. Costantinescu, and St. Berceanu
The potential of the INAA and PIXE methods for the detection of mineral microelement changes in pathological human blood serum has been evaluated on nine cases of different hemopathies. These included hereditary hemolytic anemias (thalassemia, sickle cell disease, spherocytosis) and Hodgkin's disease. 23 elements (Na, Al, Cl, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, Au, Hg, Pb) have been detected in serum. Their relative concentration variations correlated with the nature of the disease and with other pathological alterations of blood are discussed.
Authors:J. Versieck, L. Vanballenberghe, A. Wittoek, and H. Vanhoe
Strontium is a trace element whose distribution and metabolism are similar to those of calcium, its close chemical analogue. The element received scientific attention because of its potential beneficial effects in the treatment of osteoporosis andosteolytic metastatic bone lesions but also because of the possible problems associated with the retention of90Sr from radioactive fall-out. In continuation of a series of experiments intended to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in human blood serum and packed blood cells, we set up a project to determine also strontium. The following values were obtained (mean±standard deviation): 22.2±4.8 ng/ml (serum) and 2.85±1.11 ng/g wet weight (packed blood cells).
Several modifications are proposed of the established methods of iodine determination in serum. Prior to the actual analysis,
the serum is lyophilized. This preliminary treatment permits the use of large samples. Through lyophilization human blood
serum samples can easily be reduced to one-tenth of the original weight. Reduction is even more dramatic with materials from
other than human origin. After irradiation the samples are subjected to chemical treatment in the presence of an iodine carrier
and131I-labelled thyoxine. This procedure has been adopted for the determination of the iodine content and the chemical yield in
one and the same radioactive measurement. The analysis technique itself consists of an open system Schöniger combustion. The
open combustion allows the use of large samples; the gases evolved are absorbed upon their subsequent passage through potassium
hydroxide and hydrochloric acid; the mineralization requires less than two minutes. After the addition of a substochiometric
amount of silver nitrate, silver iodide is precipitated from an ammoniacal solution as a flat sample, which has been found
ideally suited for high efficiency counting with a Ge(Li) detector. The spectrum gives evidence of an excellent decontamination
from the38Cl,80Br and82Br activities. The iodine content can be calculated from the ratio of the photopeak areas at 364.5 keV and 442.7 keV corresponding
to131I and128I, respectively. The chemical procedure requires a mere 15 min, and the recording of the γ-ray spectrum takes no longer than
30 min. The technique is not limited to serum only. It proved well suited for the analysis of many other types of biological
material, e.g. human skin tissues.