Is Europe becoming the world’s leading knowledge-based economic area of the world, as European leaders planned at their Lisbon meeting in 2000? In this article, we analyze the Lisbon performance of the countries of the European Union from a long-term, structural perspective. We examine performance in the Lisbon indicators by factor analytical means. To measure progress, we observe contradictions between some of the indicators, chosen by the member governments and the European Commission. Finally, we conclude that only a Schumpeterian vision of capitalism as a process of “creative destruction,” or rather “destructive creation,” can explain these contradictions, which we empirically reveal in this analysis, and which beset the “Lisbon strategy” from the very beginning. European decision-makers often seem to be unaware of these underlying contradictions, which is why the goal of our paper is to clarify the processes involved. In Schumpeter’s elitist-conservative visions of society, the decay of values in the capitalist society was an all-important element in his pessimistic theory developed in “Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy”. For Schumpeter the disappearance of the enterprising, male-dominated capitalist family was a critical element in his theory. But it is not the disappearance of the enterprising capitalist family that threatens the future of capitalism in Europe, but the often still existing incompatibility of work and family life, which explains more than 60% of the Lisbon process failure.
With the growing environmental crisis affecting our globe, ideas to weigh economic or social progress by the ‘energy input’ necessary to achieve it are increasingly gaining acceptance. This question is intriguing and is being dealt with by a growing number of studies, focusing on the environmental price of human progress. Even more intriguing, however, is the question of which factors of social organization contribute to a responsible use of the resources of our planet to achieve a given social result (‘smart development’). In this essay, we present the first systematic study on how migration — or rather, more concretely, received worker remittances per GDP — helps the nations of our globe to enjoy social and economic progress at a relatively small environmental price. We look at the effects of migration on the balance sheets of societal accounting, based on the ‘ecological price’ of the combined performance of democracy, economic growth, gender equality, human development, research and development, and social cohesion. Feminism in power, economic freedom, population density, the UNDP education index as well as the receipt of worker remittances all significantly contribute towards a ‘smart overall development’, while high military expenditures and a high world economic openness are a bottleneck for ‘smart overall development’.
Authors:Sylwester Białowąs, Tomasz Potocki, and Anna Rogozińska
The paper investigates the price determinants, risk/return characteristics and investment performances of the Polish art market. Special attention is given to cultural and historical determinants underlying the creation of the Polish art market after 1989 and the dynamics of changes in the first two decades after the system transition. Data from auction annuals during the years from 1991 to 2012 and repeat-sales regression (RSR) method are used to create the index of 28,951 art transactions. Based on the art index values, we observe that the art index for the Polish auction market exhibits similar returns to the ones on treasury bonds and much lower returns than the ones on the Polish stock and gold prices. The volatility of the art index is, what is striking, much lower than the volatility of stocks, comparable to gold prices and much higher than the volatility of treasury bonds. Moreover, high correlation between art and money market instruments suggests a limited portfolio diversification opportunity.
Authors:Alireza Abbasi, Jörn Altmann, and Junseok Hwang
Although there are many studies for quantifying the academic performance of researchers, such as measuring the scientific
performance based on the number of publications, there are no studies about quantifying the collaboration activities of researchers.
This study addresses this shortcoming. Based on three measures, namely the collaboration network structure of researchers,
the number of collaborations with other researchers, and the productivity index of co-authors, two new indices, the RC-Index and CC-Index, are proposed for quantifying the collaboration activities of researchers and scientific communities. After applying these
indices on a data set generated from publication lists of five schools of information systems, this study concludes with a
discussion of the shortcomings and advantages of these indices.
Authors:Chia-Lin Chang, Michael McAleer, and Les Oxley
The paper is concerned with analysing what makes a great journal great in the sciences, based on quantifiable Research Assessment Measures (RAM). Alternative RAM are discussed, with an emphasis on the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science database (hereafter ISI). Various ISI RAM that are calculated annually or updated daily are defined and analysed, including the classic 2-year impact factor (2YIF), 5-year impact factor (5YIF), Immediacy (or 0-year impact factor (0YIF)), Eigenfactor, Article Influence, C3PO (Citation Performance Per Paper Online), h-index, Zinfluence, PI-BETA (Papers Ignored—By Even The Authors), Impact Factor Inflation (IFI), and three new RAM, namely Historical Self-citation Threshold Approval Rating (H-STAR), 2 Year Self-citation Threshold Approval Rating (2Y-STAR), and Cited Article Influence (CAI). The RAM data are analysed for the 6 most highly cited journals in 20 highly-varied and well-known ISI categories in the sciences, where the journals are chosen on the basis of 2YIF. The application to these 20 ISI categories could be used as a template for other ISI categories in the sciences and social sciences, and as a benchmark for newer journals in a range of ISI disciplines. In addition to evaluating the 6 most highly cited journals in each of 20 ISI categories, the paper also highlights the similarities and differences in alternative RAM, finds that several RAM capture similar performance characteristics for the most highly cited scientific journals, determines that PI-BETA is not highly correlated with the other RAM, and hence conveys additional information regarding research performance. In order to provide a meta analysis summary of the RAM, which are predominantly ratios, harmonic mean rankings are presented of the 13 RAM for the 6 most highly cited journals in each of the 20 ISI categories. It is shown that emphasizing THE impact factor, specifically the 2-year impact factor, of a journal to the exclusion of other informative RAM can lead to a distorted evaluation of journal performance and influence on different disciplines, especially in view of inflated journal self citations.
Ever since Goldin (1995) proposed the idea that there is a U-shaped female labor force participation rate function in economic development, empirical research is stunned by the question why the countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are characterized by such low rates of female labor force participation. This gap in labor economics research is all the more perplexing since gender equality, particularly in education and employment, significantly contributes to economic growth. The research strategy of this paper is within a relatively new tradition in labor market research, initiated by Besamusca et al. (2015), which does not exclude the “religious factor” and what the authors call “gender ideology”. Our analysis of the “gender ideology” of Islamism and gender values is based on an empirical analysis of World Values Survey data. In recent economic theory, Carvalho (2013) maintained that Muslim veiling is a strategy for integration, enabling women to take up outside economic opportunities while preserving their reputation within the community. The empirical data clearly support a pessimistic view. We show that Muslim Feminism, which according to our analysis implies the rejection of Islamism and the veil, and the democracy movement in the Muslim world, are closely interrelated. Thus, it is imperative that Western Feminism develops solidarity with Muslim Feminism, and that labor economics stop excluding the religious factor from the analytical frameworks explaining low female labor force participation rates.
Authors:E.T. Stepkowska, J. Perez-Rodriguez, M. Aviles, M. Jimenez de Haro, and M. Sayagues
Specific surface, S, of CSH-gel particles of disordered layered structure, was studied by water sorption/retention in two cement pastes differing
in strength, i.e. C-33 (weaker) and C-43 (stronger), w/c=0.4. Hydration time in liquid phase was th=1 and 6 months, followed by hydration in water vapour either on increasing stepwise the relative humidity, RH=0.5→0.95→1.0 (WS) or on its lowering in an inverse order (WR). Specific surface was estimated from evaporable (sorbed) water
content, EV (110C), assuming a bi- and three-molecular sorbed water layer at RH=0.5 or 0.95, respectively (WS). On WR it was three- and three- to four-molecular (50 to 75%), respectively, causing a hysteresis
of sorption isotherm. At RH=0.5 the S increased with cement strength from 146 m2 g-1 (C-33, 1 m) to 166 m2 g-1 (C-43, 1 m) and with hydration time to 163 (C-33, 6 m) and to 204 m2 g-1 (C-43, 6 m). At RH=1.0 (and 0.95), higher S-value were measured but these differences were smaller: S amounted to 190-200 m2 g-1 in C-33 (1 and 6 m) and 198-210 m2 g-1 in C-43 (1 and 6 m). Thus no collapse occurred on air drying of paste C-43 (6 m).
Authors:E. Stepkowska, J. Perez-Rodriguez, M. Jimenez de Haro, and M. Sayagues
Main hydration products of two cement pastes, i.e. CSH-gel, portlandite (P) (and specific surface S) were studied by static heating, and by SEM, TEM and XRD, as a function of cement strength (C-33 and C-43) hydration time (th) and subsequent hydration in water vapour.Total change in mass on hydration and air drying, Mo, increased with strength of cement paste and with hydration time. Content of water escaping at 110 to 220°C, defined as water bound with low energy, mainly interlayer and hydrate water, was independent on cement strength but its content increased with (th). Content of chemically bound (zeolitic) water in CSH-gel, escaping at 220-400°C, was slightly dependent on strength and increased with (th). It was possibly derived from the dehydroxylation of CSH-gel and AFm phase. Portlandite water, escaping at 400-500°C, was independent on cement strength and was higher on longer hydration. Large P crystals were formed in the weaker cement paste C-33. Smaller crystals were formed in C-43 but they increased with (th). Carbonate formated on contact with air (calcite, vaterite and aragonite), decomposed in cement at 600-700oC. It was high in pastes C-33(1 month) and C-43(1 month), i.e. 5.7 and 3.3%, respectively; it was less than 1% after 6 hydration months (low sensitivity to carbonation) in agreement with the XRD study showing carbonates in the air dry paste (1month), and its absence on prolonged hydration (6 months) and on acetone treatment. Water vapour treatment of (6 months) pastes or wetting-drying increased this sensitivity.Nanosized P-crystals, detected by TEM, could contribute to the cement strength; carbonate was observed on the rims of gel clusters.
Authors:E. T. Stepkowska, J. M. Blanes, C. Real, and J. L. Perez-Rodriguez
The hydration products in two aged cement pastes (DTA/DTG/TG) were compared with those in fresh ones (static heating, SH)
and were also studied by mass spectrometry (MS), IR and thermo XRD-analysis. The products considered here were: the sorbed
water, the CSH gel including hydrates, portlandite, calcite, aragonite and vaterite. Except carbonates their content was higher
in the stronger paste C-43, than in C-33, but lowered with ageing (only the CSH gel water remained approximately unchanged).
The sorbed water content became with time lower and similar in both pastes (it evaporated up to 155-185C in TG); the escape
of the rest moved to higher temperatures (500-700C). The three DTG peaks at 200-400C indicated jennite-like phase in the
CSH gel; the mass loss (155-460C) was higher on ageing due to development of organic matter, especially in C-43 (DTA, TG,
IR). Portlandite content changed little and carbonate content increased considerably. They decomposed in air at 470 and 720-740C,
in argon at 450 and 680-710C and in vacuum at 400 and 630C, respectively (DTG peak, XRD). Between 500 and 700C the simultaneous
evolution of H2O and CO2was observed by MS, which is attributed to dehydroxylation of jennite-like phase and/or to decomposition of some carbonate
hydrate and/or hydrocarbonate (three peaks on CO2evolution curve, MS). The d(001) peak of portlandite exceeded the nominal value and will be analyzed separately.
Authors:E. T. Stepkowska, J. M. Blanes, A. Justo, M. A. Aviles, and J. L. Perez-Rodriguez
Summary Two hydrated and aged cement pastes from India (NCB), w/c=0.4, of a similar chemical composition but of a different specific surface and different strength (OPC, C-33 and C-43), hydrated at w/c=0.4 for 1 month, were studied by XRD after 1 year and 5-6 year ageing on contact with air. They were tested by static heating (SH) in fresh state, and by DTA/DTG/TG, IR and mass spectrometry (MS), after ageing, presented elsewhere. The main XRD peaks of (i) portlandite were decreasing with T and disappearing about 450°C, (ii) calcite peak at room T was small and broad, it increased gradually, especially after portlandite disappearance; above 600°C it was lowered and it was lost above 700°C. Important variation in the d(001) of portlandite with ageing was observed, exceeding the standard value of d(001)=4.895 Å (72-0156). It was higher in the paste C-33 (4.925-4.936 Å), containing more carbonates, than in the paste C-43 (4.916-4.927 Å). Small variations only were found in the value of d(101), i.e. 2.627-2.635 Å (nominally 2.622 Å), whereas the d(104) of calcite could be used as internal standard and other calcium carbonates (vaterite and aragonite) showed a small variation only. The increase ind(hkl) with temperature was straight linear (in portlandite ?d(001)=0.095 Å, at 30-400°C) and the thermal expansion coefficient estimated thereform was high (4.75-4.95·10-5 K-1). Close to the T of decomposition the ?d/?T became steeper. The thermal variation of d(104)=3.035 Å of calcite (?d=0.015 Å at 30-400°C) was smaller than that ofd(101) of portlandite (?d=0.025 Å at 30-400°C) and was similar in C-33 and C-43. The thermal expansion coefficient was 1.54 10-5 K-1, thus higher than the reported aa=0.65·10-5 K-1.