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4 (ISO5832-3) with a diameter of 20 mm and thickness of 2 mm, polished TiAl6V4 (ISO5832-3), and commercially pure (CP) Ti (ISO5832-2) with diameter of 35 mm and thickness of 2 mm substrates were purchased from Protetim Ltd. The TiAl6V4 bare material

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In the present paper, CFD simulation is used to perform the numerical calculation of behaviours of multi-blade drag typed VAWT. The sliding grid technology, FLUENT software and PISO algorithm are involved. By taking wind power efficiency C p as the goal function, the optimal situations of multi-blade drag typed VAWT with 4 and 6 blades are conducted by CFD simulation. In this investigation, the variable parameters include the rotation rate of wind-mill ω, the blade installation angle θ and the blade width d. The results show that: the optimal working conditions for the 4-blade wind mill at the inlet wind speed 8 m/s are ω = 18 r/ min, θ = 28°, and d = 0.83 m, which induces an optimal wind power efficiency rate C p = 27.127%; the optimal working conditions for the 6-blade wind mill at the inlet wind speed 8 m/s are ω = 18 r/min, θ = 27°, and d = 0.67 m, which leads to an optimal wind power efficiency rate C p = 30.404%.

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Resources Canada . 2013 . Comprehensive Energy Use Database, Residential Sector –Table 2 . [Online]. Avaliable: https://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/corporate/statistics/neud/dpa/show-Table.cfm?type=CP&sector=res&juris=ca&rn=2&page=0

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] Kim K. J. , Kim K. M. ( 2010 ), Preliminary cost estimation model using case-based reasoning and genetic algorithms . Journal of Computing Civil Engineering , 24 ( 6 ), 499 – 505 . DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CP.1943

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, “ Comparison of driving cycles obtained by the Micro-trips, Markov-chains and MWD-CP methods ,” Int. J. Sustain. Energy Plann. Manage. , vol. 22 , pp. 109 – 120 , 2019 , https://doi.org/10.5278/ijsepm.2554 .

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.-Bot. 1995 18 15 20 Stamp, J.A. & Meredith, C.P. (1988): Somatic embryogenesis from leaves and anthers of

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Our research target was to utilise vine-branch, existing in huge amounts, for energetic purposes. During our experiments, microwave (MW) treatments of different powers (400–1600 W), pressures (1–5 bar), temperatures (120–180 °C), and treatment times (3–30 min) were applied to change the physical condition of vine-branch. After MW, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) was used (85–100 h, 37 °C). In addition, beside MW, comparisons were made regarding various treatment methods: untreated (UTE), cooking plate (CP), and autoclave (AC), to determine to what extent they affect the final glucose yield. This yield can even further be increased by MW pre-treatment (50 W, 3–30 min, 40 °C) of the enzyme used during the hydrolysis, which reinforces the argument that enzyme activity can be increased by irradiation. A difference of 22.1% was detected among the glucose yield values in untreated and treated enzyme processes.

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The present investigation was undertaken to optimize the level of ingredients (milk fat, sugar, and mango pulp) for functional dairy beverage using Response Surface Methodology. Central Composite Rotatable Design with milk fat (%), sugar (%), and mango pulp (var. Chaunsa, %) as independent variables produced 20 different combinations that were used to investigate the effect on viscosity (cP), antioxidant activity, and overall acceptability. The response surface three dimensional graphs were plotted as a function of two variables to show the effect of level of ingredients on physico-chemical and sensory properties of the beverage. Significant correlation models were established with the coefficient of correlation (R2) greater than 0.8. An optimization of process variables was attempted for maximum antioxidant activity and overall acceptability. ANOVA tables revealed that increase in fat and sugar levels lowered the antioxidant activity, while enhancement of mango pulp significantly increased both antioxidant activity and overall acceptability of the beverage. The optimized levels of ingredients were 0.5% milk fat, 6.0% sugar and 30% mango pulp.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: N. Khantisophon, D. Montet, G. Loiseau, S. Rakshit, W. Stevens, and R. Ray

Cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz) starch-based vegetable beverage (cassava milk) was formulated to get a composition close to that of cow’s milk with 3% cassava starch, 4% soybean proteins, 3% soybean oil and 0.3% calcium citrate. Heat treatment of the dry starch at 110 °C for 6 h was done prior to the addition of other components to stabilise milk and to avoid gelatinisation. The most stable form of cassava milk that did not separate into two phases for 10 days was obtained by homogenisation at high pressure 12,000 psi/5 min. Milk with starch particle size of 10 μm was found to have sensory qualities close to that of cow’s milk with white colour and viscosity of 7.8 cP. Cassava milk homogenised at 12,000 psi/5 min with cow’s milk (50%) and aromatised with 1% chocolate flavour was given the highest score by 20 sensory panellists. The final product was a white milky solution with good taste, good digestibility, homogeneous, physically and microbiologically stable, and had a nutritional composition similar to that of cow’s milk.

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The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy for determining chemical composition of goose fatty liver was studied. The spectra of 50 fresh, homogenized liver samples (ether extract content EE=53.2, SD=4.87%) were taken between 1100 and 2500 nm in reflectance mode, then the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile was measured (gas chromatography). Calibration equations were developed using modified partial least-squares regression. The R 2 value in estimation of DM, CP and total EE were 0.72, 0.63 and 0.81, respectively. For the major fatty acids (oleic, palmitic and stearic acid, 51.4, 25.8 and 15.5% of total) the R² values were 0.94, 0.93 and 0.16. The estimation of the total saturated fatty acid (SAT) proportion and the so-called unsaturation index (UI) value was effective (R 2 =0.81 and 0.79, respectively). The paper demonstrates the usefulness of the NIRS method as a fast and solvent free alternative of liver qualification. For practical purposes a larger number of fatty liver samples are needed.

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