. , Albarello , N. , Simões-Gurgel , C. ( 2015 ) Production and optimization through elicitation of carotenoid pigments in the in vitro cultures of Cleome rosea Vahl (Cleomaceae) . J. Plant Biochem. Biotech. 24 , 105 – 113 .
Intake of carotenoids has been correlated with the reduced incidence of several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and several types of cancer ( Böhm et al
Effects of Meloidogyne incognita, Alternaria dauci and Fusarium solani were studied on carrot (Daucus carota L.) growth, chlorophyll, carotenoid and proline contents in different types of soil. Plants grown in 20:80 and 40:60% sand:clay soil mixtures showed a significant increase in root dry weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents compared to plants grown in 100% clay soil. However, use of 60:40 sand:clay resulted in a similar root dry weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents as was found in carrots grown in 100% clay soil. Inoculation of plants with M. incognita, A. dauci or F. solani caused a significant reduction in root dry weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in all soil types as compared to their respective control. Inoculation of plants by A. dauci caused the greatest reduction in root dry weight followed by F. solani and M. incognita in different sand and clay mixtures. Use of 20:80, 40:60 or 60:40 sand:clay mixtures caused a significant increase in proline content of plants over those grown in 100% clay soil. Similarly, inoculation of M. incognita, A. dauci and F. solani caused a significant increase in proline content in all soil types compared to their respective control.
Enzyme-assisted extraction of carotenoids from tomato peels of the Bulgarian cultivar “Stela”, one of the most widely used cultivars by the canning industry, was examined in this study. The carotenoid content in raw tomato peels was established by HPLC analysis. A two-step protocol was followed: the tomato peels were first treated with enzymes and then extracted by the use of acetone as a solvent for 30 min at 20±1 °C and solid/liquid ratio of 1:30. The total carotenoid, lycopene, and β-carotene extraction yields were increased by the use of pectinase, cellulase, endo-xylanase, and proteinase enzymes in comparison with the non-enzyme-treated samples. The increase in the extraction yield was affected by the enzymes used, the enzyme concentration, the pretreatment time and temperature. Maximum total carotenoid (55.15 mg/100 g d.w.), β-carotene (35.85 mg/100 g d.w.), and lycopene (15.44 mg/100 g d.w.) extraction yields were obtained in peels pretreated with mixed cellulase (100 U g−1) and endo-xylanase (400 U g−1) for 4 h at 50 °C. Carotenoid recovery by mixed cellulolytic and hemi-cellulolytic enzyme pretreatment of tomato peels is a good approach, which can be used for waste utilization.
The relationship of retinoid and carotenoid metabolism with caecotrophy was studied in adult female New Zealand White rabbits kept in individual metabolic cages. Caecotrophy was prevented by the use of plastic collars. The dry matter, crude protein, fibre, fat and ash contents of hard and soft faecal samples were determined. The retinoid (retinol and retinyl palmitate) and carotenoid (canthaxanthin, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin) levels of the blood, liver, kidney, caecal content and faeces were also measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The prevention of caecotrophy resulted in a significant decrease of blood retinol (P < 0.001) and retinyl palmitate (P < 0.01) concentration but it did not cause any significant change in the retinol and retinyl palmitate contents of the liver and kidney. The caecal content (25.78 ± 6.87 µg/g) and the soft faeces (34.52 ± 10.48 µg/g) contained the retinoids in similar amounts. Various carotenoids were found in considerable amounts in different types of faeces, while in the tissues (blood, liver and kidney) these pigments did not occur in substantial amounts. Total carotenoid concentration was similar in the caecal content (11.23 μg/g) and in the caecotroph (13.85 μg/g). On the basis of the results it can be assumed that the retinoid content of rabbit feed could be lowered in the presence of adequate caecal function and caecotrophy.