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Pentoxifylline (PTX, a methylxanthine derivative) has been found to interrupt early gene activation for tumour necrosis factor, interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tissue factor production and to improve survival from experimental sepsis. During endotoxaemia, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) and proinflammatory cytokines trigger the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) via the tissue factor-dependent pathway of coagulation. The present study was undertaken to determine whether pentoxifylline could prevent coagulation disturbances in LPS-treated rabbits. Endotoxaemia was induced with E. coli lipopolysaccharide in New Zealand White rabbits. Forty rabbits were used and divided into four equal groups. Group 1 served as a control group; Group 2: lipopolysaccharide was injected intravenously, Group 3: pentoxifylline was injected intraperitoneally, Group 4: lipopolysaccharide and pentoxifylline were injected simultaneously. Blood samples were collected 6 h after the treatments. In rabbits with endotoxin-induced DIC, platelet count, leukocyte count, percentage of differential leukocyte values, fibrinogen level, antithrombin III (AT-III) and protein C (PC) activity were decreased. Moreover, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) were prolonged when compared to the control group. In conclusion, haemostatic disturbances associated with endotoxin-induced DIC were moderately suppressed by the administration of PTX.

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Environmental pollution and consumption of alcohol evoke various immunomodulations promoting the progress of different pathologies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of alcohol consumption intensity on the immune system functions of humans living in ecologically different regions, i.e. in a district polluted with industrial siftings (Trakai, n=270) and in a relatively clean district (Širvintos, n=250). In the Trakai cohort 96% and in Širvintos group 89% of persons consumed alcohol. With regard to alcohol consumption habits the immunohaematological indices were investigated in the following four groups: abstinents, light alcohol users, moderate alcohol users and alcohol abusers. We determined the compensatory mechanisms of immune system functions of moderate alcohol users and alcohol abusers in comparison with abstinents in the relatively clean Širvintos district. In the Trakai district polluted with industrial siftings such compensatory reactions where not found. Thus, damage to the immune system functions is not only an endogenous risk factor for many diseases, but also an indicator of organism injury. This investigation stated, that immunity disturbance in humans depends on alcohol consumption intensity and place of residence.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Tihomira Gojmerac, Marija Uremović, Z. Uremović, S. Ćurić, and Nina Bilandžić

The aim of the study was to assess the effect of subacute treatment with a low dose of atrazine (1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine, 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl), an s-triazine herbicide, on endocrine oestrus regulation in gilts. A group of nine gilts (F1generation of Swedish Landrace à Large Yorkshire) were treated with 1 mg atrazine/kg body mass daily, mixed to the feed for 19 days before the onset of expected oestrus. Blood samples were obtained by cranial vena cava puncture three times daily at 3-h intervals on five post-treatment days, i.e. before and during oestrus. The serum concentration of oestradiol-17β (E2) was determined by the fluoroimmunochemical method. On Day -2 before the onset of expected oestrus, a significantly lower (P < 0.001) E2concentration was measured in the serum of treated gilts (31.25 ± 1.95 and 39.32 ± 1.38 pg/mL) than in the control pigs (51.43 ± 1.29 and 68.59 ± 2.99 pg/mL). In contrast, the E2concentration measured in the serum of treated animals was significantly higher (P < 0.001) on the day of the expected onset of oestrus and on the subsequent two days (35.43 ± 1.85, 53.92 ± 1.98 and 60.32 ± 2.35 pg/mL, respectively) than in the control animals (13.52 ± 1.79, 21.53 ± 1.35 and 20.05 ± 1.46 pg/mL, respectively). Insufficient serum E2concentration of the treated gilts resulted in a failure of expected oestrus, as indicated also by the state of dioestrus demonstrated by histopathological examination of the uterus.

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On a broiler farm with a rearing capacity of about 200,000 chickens, a disease characterised by growth retardation, variability in chick size, 'leg weakness', diarrhoea and increased mortality at 3 weeks of age occurred repeatedly, in several successive broiler flocks. Gross and histopathological findings were dominated by widening of the hypertrophic and ossification layers of the physes of long bones as well as by thickening, unevenness and defective calcification of the cartilage trabeculae. In the parathyroid gland, vacuolar degeneration of the cytoplasm of glandular epithelial cells, connective tissue proliferation and, here and there, cyst formation were seen. Additional findings included severe cerebellar oedema and neuronal degeneration. The pancreatic, myocardial and intestinal changes typical of infectious stunting syndrome (ISS) occurred only in a mild form. Four-week-old chickens exhibiting 'leg weakness' had significantly lower blood inorganic phosphate concentration and tibial ash content as compared to healthy chickens. The disease was successfully transmitted by oral administration of small intestinal homogenate from affected chickens. In a second experiment, however, the disease could not be transmitted with intestinal homogenate sterilized by irradiation. Large doses of vitamin D3reduced the rate of growth retardation and defective calcification of bones. The digestive enzyme activities of the pancreas and small intestinal mucosa of 'infected' chickens were decreased as is typical of ISS.

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A Crohn-betegség a terminális ileumot és/vagy a colont érintő krónikus gyulladással járó senyvesztő betegség. Patogenezisében genetikai és környezeti tényezők játszanak szerepet. Újabban a molekuláris genetika, genotipizálási technológia, bioinformatika terén történt előrehaladás eredményeit kombináltan alkalmazzák az egész genomra kiterjedő analízis során. Az így feltárt genetikai alterációk betegséggel történő társulásának vizsgálata több mint 30, a Crohn-betegséggel társult fogékonysági gén és locus beazonosítását és korábban nem sejtett folyamatok Crohn-betegség patogenezisében játszott szerepének feltárását eredményezte. A betegség szorosan társul a mikrobiális molekuláris mintázatot felismerő receptorokat, főként a NOD2 proteint, valamint a Vnt jelút Tcf4 transzkripciós faktorát (más néven TCFL2) és az autophagiát szabályozó ATG16L1 proteint kódoló géneket érintő polimorfizmusokkal. A szóban forgó polimorfizmusok csökkent defenzintermeléssel (defenzinelégtelenséggel) járnak, amely viszont a commensalis flóra összetételében változásokhoz, az intestinalis barrierfunkciók defektusához és a nyálkahártya bakteriális inváziójához vezet. A NOD2 és ATG16L1 proteineket kódoló géneket érintő polimorfizmusoknak másik, újabban felismert következménye, hogy a csonkolt NOD2 protein képtelen az autophagia indukálására, továbbá ez a protein csakúgy, mint a mutáns ATG16L1T300A protein, képtelen megcélozni és autophagosomába zárva feldolgozni, majd a sejtből kitakarítani a sejtekbe jutott mikrobákat. Következményesen a tartósan fennmaradó alacsony szintű infekció miatt fellépő adaptív immunválasz-reakció révén krónikus gyulladás, szövetkárosodás és a betegség klinikai tünetei alakulnak ki. Ezek fényében úgy tekinthető, hogy a Crohn-betegség kialakulását a genetikailag fogékony egyedekben a veleszületett immunvédekezés defektusa okozza vagy legalábbis az indítja el, amelyhez a bélhámsejtekbe jutott és ott perzisztáló intestinalis mikrobákkal szemben fellépő felfokozott adaptív immunválasz-reakcióval kapcsolatos gyulladás társul. Ilyen körülmények között a terápiás célú intervenciónak feltehetően inkább a veleszületett immunválasz erősítésére, mintsem csak az adaptív immunválasz-reakciók elnyomására kellene irányulnia. Orv. Hetil., 2010, 40, 1645–1655.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Katalin Fusz, Annamária Pakai, Zsuzsanna Kívés, Szilvia Szunomár, Annamária Regős, and András Oláh

Weibel, G., Brandenberger, G.: Disturbances in hormonal profiles of night workers during their usual sleep and work times. J. Biol. Rhythms, 1998, 13 (3), 202–208. 4

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2017; 14: 529–534. 14 Kumbhani DJ, Sharma GV, Khuri SF, et al. Fascicular conduction disturbances after coronary artery bypass surgery: a review with a meta

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cerebral palsy (CP), intellectual impairment, as well as visual disturbances. Although cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage are regarded as the primary target in the pathogenesis of PVL, there is increasing evidence that neonatal white matter damage is

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Çöl, R., Keskin, E. and Atalay, B. (2005): Effect of pentoxifylline on endotoxin-induced haemostatic disturbances in rabbits. Acta Vet. Hung. 53 , 325–335. Atalay B. Effect of

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Kitti Barta, Zoltán Szabó, Csaba Kun, Csaba Munkácsy, Tünde Magyar, Orsolya Bene, László Csiba, and István Lőrincz

Suganuma, N., Shigedo, Y., Adachi, H. és mtsai: Association of gastroesophageal reflux disease with weight gain and apnea, and their disturbance on sleep. Psychiatry. Clin. Neurosci., 2001, 55 , 255

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