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The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union , Directive 2010/40/EU of the
.: G04 eloadás, Napelem-technológiák és jellemzoik. A fordítás a Soltrain projekt (4.1030/Z/02-067/ 2002 sz. EU Altener program) keretében, a SzIE Fizika és Folyamatirányítási Tanszék gondozásában készült, pp. 1 – 2
Taking into consideration that more than 40% of the final energy consumption of the EU stems from the residential and commercial building sector, it is not surprising that the community-level regulation strongly focuses on these sectors (Eurostat, 2011). In respect to buildings’ energy performance, the European Parliament and the Council Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings requires from Member States (hereinafter: MS) to ensure that, by 31 December 2020, all new buildings are to be nearly ‘zero-energy’ buildings. Furthermore, MSs shall ensure that energy performance certificates are to be issued for buildings constructed, sold or rented out to a new tenant. Although the concerning regulation is being developed in the right way, several corrections are still required from an ecological point of view.
In this paper we analyse the trends and developments of energy imports as a percentage of gross inland energy consumption including bunkers in Hungary and the European Union countries between 2000 and 2011. Data show that the average of the energy dependence increased in the EU27 Member States (7.1 percentage points) and in Hungary, too (3.4 percentage points). The energy intensity in Member States is examined as well. According to the data the energy intensity decreased in the majority of the Member States, the average decreased by 16 percent.
Authors:Klára Czimre, Gábor Kozma, Károly Teperics, György Szabó, and István Fazekas
The growing significance of renewable energy resources has been one of the most important processes in the field of energy management for the past two decades. This is due to phenomena related to environmental protection, security of supply, economic and rural development, as well as to the abundance of financial incentives (EU grants, constructive national off-take regime). As a consequence of this, the paper concentrates on the general and territorial characteristics of the EU financial instruments for Hungary in the 2007–2013 budgetary period with the objective to enhance the dissemination of renewable energy resources. As an outcome of our research, three very important conclusions were drawn. First of all, less developed regions were more active in submitting proposals though the more developed regions reached higher success rates. Secondly, it was noticed that the “identity” of the successful tenderers influenced the average volume of proposals to a considerable extent. Thirdly, in the case of the successful proposals, the development level and size (of settlements) of the territorial units (districts) had a direct impact on the identity of the applicants and on the average size of proposals.