Alvincz, J. (1994): A magyar élelmiszeripar privatizációja . (The privatisation of Hungarian food industry.) CSc. (Ph.D.) Thesis, Budapest, pp. 1-120.
Anon. (1997): The situation of food industry in Hungary . Report to the EU
Commission, Action plan for the deployment of intelligent transport systems in Europe, COM(2008)886 final, Brussels, 2008.
The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union , Directive 2010/40/EU of the
wettability while the addition of Ni decreases it. The wettability of the Ni containing Sn-based solder can be improved by addition of rare earth metal or other elements, e.g., Europium (Eu) (in a SnCuNi–Eu/Cu system) [ 22 ] or Indium (In) (in a SnCuNi
.: G04 eloadás, Napelem-technológiák és jellemzoik. A fordítás a Soltrain projekt (4.1030/Z/02-067/ 2002 sz. EU Altener program) keretében, a SzIE Fizika és Folyamatirányítási Tanszék gondozásában készült, pp. 1 – 2
Taking into consideration that more than 40% of the final energy consumption of the EU stems from the residential and commercial building sector, it is not surprising that the community-level regulation strongly focuses on these sectors (Eurostat, 2011). In respect to buildings’ energy performance, the European Parliament and the Council Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings requires from Member States (hereinafter: MS) to ensure that, by 31 December 2020, all new buildings are to be nearly ‘zero-energy’ buildings. Furthermore, MSs shall ensure that energy performance certificates are to be issued for buildings constructed, sold or rented out to a new tenant. Although the concerning regulation is being developed in the right way, several corrections are still required from an ecological point of view.
In this paper we analyse the trends and developments of energy imports as a percentage of gross inland energy consumption including bunkers in Hungary and the European Union countries between 2000 and 2011. Data show that the average of the energy dependence increased in the EU27 Member States (7.1 percentage points) and in Hungary, too (3.4 percentage points). The energy intensity in Member States is examined as well. According to the data the energy intensity decreased in the majority of the Member States, the average decreased by 16 percent.