Authors:J. Montiel-Ventura, J.J. Luna-Guevara, M.A. Tornero-Campante, A. Delgado-Alvarado, and M.L. Luna-Guevara
The aim was to examine conditions of convective drying and spray-drying to improve preservation of lycopene content in tomatoes. The weight, size, colour, pH and °Brix values were evaluated in fresh fruit (FF) and colour (L, a, b), hue, and chrome indices were analysed from dried tomatoes, too. Tomato paste was dried (40, 50, 60, and 80 °C with times of 540, 390, 270, and 240 min) under convection conditions and pulverized. In the encapsulation treatments core material with tomato powders of 50, 60, and 70%, shell solution of maltodextrin/gum arabic 1:1, flow rate of 4, 6, 9, and 12 ml min–1, and inlet air T of 160, 170, and 180 °C were used. The physicochemical properties of FF corresponded to a degree of ripeness for consumption. The a, a/b, and hue values of dried tomatoes at 50 °C significantly correlated to red colouring and higher lycopene content (47.98±1.49 mg/100 g). The encapsulation with 50% and 60% of tomato powders, 170 °C and 9 ml min–1 treatments increased lycopene contents to 10.41 mg/100 g, 10.20 mg/100 g, and 11.51 mg/100 g, respectively. The results demonstrated that the physicochemical and functional properties were influenced by drying conditions, providing useful information for increasing the stability of lycopene in dried tomatoes.
.3 Sausages characterisation Cooking loss and water holding capacity (WHC) : Cooking loss and WHC of the sausages were quantified after heating (80 °C, 20 min) and centrifugation (1,000× g , 10 min at 4 °C), respectively ( Hur et al., 2008 ). Texture profile
: Penicillin G (10 µg). 3.3 Determination of probiotic potential and technological properties 3.3.1 Cell viability under simulated gastrointestinal conditions The high tolerance to acidity at pH 2 and 3 was found for MA-10 with a high survival rate after 3 h
strains were propagated twice in 10 ml of MRS broth and incubated at 30 °C for L. sanfranciscensis and 37 °C for L. plantarum overnight. The fresh starter culture inoculum was obtained by centrifugation (9 000 × g , 10 min, 4 °C) of the second
Authors:P. Yerlikaya, F.G. Tokay, A.C. Alp, and S. Cilay
to 250 mL with distilled water. 10 g of the mixture was dried in an oven at 80 °C for 2 hours. The calculation of cooking loss was performed by Eq. (2) : (2) Solid loss % = latter dry matter × 250 mL × 100 / 2 g × 10 mL 2