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Abstract  

The complex from reaction of neodymium chloride six-hydrate with salicylic acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline, Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO), was synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, molar conductance, and thermogravimatric analysis. The standard molar enthalpies of solution of [NdCl3·6H2O(s)], [2C7H6O3(s)], [C9H7NO(s)] and [Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO)(s)] in a mixed solvent of anhydrous ethanol, dimethyl formamide (DMF) and perchloric acid were determined by calorimetry at 298.15 K. Based on Hess’ law, a new chemical cycle was designed, and the enthalpy change of the reaction

\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$NdCl_3 \cdot 6H_2 O(s) + 2C_7 H_6 O_3 (s) + C_9 H_7 NO(s) = Nd(C_7 H_5 O_3 )_2 \cdot (C_9 H_6 NO)(s) + 3HCl(g) + 6H_2 O(l)$$ \end{document}
((1)) was determined to be Δr H m Θ=117.89±0.37 kJ mol−1. From data in the literature, through Hess’ law, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H7NO)(s) was estimated to be Δf H m Θ[Nd(C7H5O3)2·(C9H6NO)(s), 298.15 K]=−2031.80±8.6 kJ mol−1.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
L. Xu
,
Y. De-Jun
,
L. Qiang-Guo
,
L. Ai-Tao
,
Y. Li-Juan
,
J. Qian-Hong
, and
L. Yi

Abstract  

The product from reaction of samarium chloride hexahydrate with salicylic acid and Thioproline, [Sm(C7H5O3)2·(C4H6NO2S)]·2H2O, was synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, molar conductance, and thermogravimetric analysis. The standard molar enthalpies of solution of [SmCl3·6H2O(s)], [2C7H6O3(s)], [C4H7NO2S(s)] and [Sm(C7H5O3)2·(C4H7NO2S)·H2O(s)] in a mixed solvent of absolute ethyl alcohol, dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) and 3 mol L−1 HCl were determined by calorimetry to be Δs H m Φ[SmCl3 δ6H2O (s), 298.15 K]= −46.68±0.15 kJ mol−1 Δs H m Φ[2C7H6O3 (s), 298.15 K]= 25.19±0.02 kJ mol−1, Δs H m Φ[C4H7NO2S (s), 298.15 K]=16.20±0.17 kJ mol−1 and Δs H m Φ[Sm(C7H5O3)2·(C4H6NO2S)]·2H2O (s), 298.15 K]= −81.24±0.67 kJ mol−1. The enthalpy change of the reaction

\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$SmCl_3 \cdot 6H_2 O(s) + 2C_7 H_6 O_3 (s) + C_4 H_7 NO_2 S(s) = Sm(C_7 H_5 O_3 )_2 \cdot (C_4 H_6 NO_2 S) \cdot 2H_2 O(s) + 3HCl(g) + 4H_2 O(1)$$ \end{document}
((1)) was determined to be Δs H m Φ =123.45±0.71 kJ mol−1. From date in the literature, through Hess’ law, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of Sm(C7H5O3)2(C4H6NO2S)δ2H2O(s) was estimated to be Δs H m Φ[Sm(C7H5O3)2·(C4H6NO2S)]·2H2O(s), 298.15 K]= −2912.03±3.10 kJ mol−1.

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The idea that the Euro zone sovereign debt crisis was caused by structural weaknesses degenerating into fundamental macroeconomic imbalances in the peripheral countries prevails among international institutions such as the IMF, the ECB, and the European Commission. On the contrary, some economists believe that this crisis is the consequence of major deficiencies in the architecture of economic policy making in the Euro zone that did not allow a proper response to a global systemic crisis of the financial markets that started in the United States. The objective of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the public debt dynamics in the EU, differentiating the case of Euro zone peripheral countries. We used quarterly data from 2000 to 2011 to estimate a small-scale model that takes into account the interactions between key variables. Our results do not support entirely the official view. We conclude that the cause of the adverse debt dynamics unravelling after 2007 was a sharp GDP contraction, coupled with a substantial increase in the interest cost of debt finance due to higher self-fulfilling solvency risks perceived by creditors, interacting with a higher sensitiveness of Euro zone peripheral countries to fundamentals.

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Abstract

A set of simple and complex indicators is used to measure the economic condition of economies, and the analysis can be conducted in a static or dynamic approach. This article proposes the author's macroeconomic condition index (MCI), which is based on the popular misery index, supplementing the unemployment and inflation rates with two variables: GDP growth rate and budget deficit. The aim of the study is to assess the macroeconomic situation of Poland against the average for the EU, using the above-mentioned measure. The time scope of the study covers the years 2011–2020, with particular emphasis on the effects of the first year of the Covid crisis. The results indicate that throughout the period the economic situation in Poland in terms of the four variables combined was relatively favourable, although less stable. A sharp downturn occurred in 2020, both domestically and on average in the EU. The main determinants of the worse condition were a decline in the GDP growth rate and an increase in the budget deficit, with relatively steady unemployment and inflation.

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Abstract

This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth in Poland and a few metrics of fiscal policy: budget deficit relative to GDP, the structure of public debt, education expenditures, and public consumption. We prove that with constant values of parameters of fiscal policy, over time the economy converges to the balanced growth path which is unique and globally asymptotically stable.

Having calibrated the model with statistical data, we demonstrate that in the period of 2000–2016 economic growth in Poland was driven primarily by rapid improvement in the level of human capital (at a rate of 5.4% per annum), and secondarily due to the accumulation of capital (2.7% annually). If recent trends in fiscal policy are continued, the Polish economy will converge to the balanced growth path with GDP growing at 3.7%. This rate may be boosted, if fiscal policy is appropriately adjusted, for example by permanent reduction in budget deficit. We also analyse the effects of changes in the financing structure of public debt. Finally, we present several scenarios of increasing public and private spending on education.

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For many years Keynesian fiscal policy became very popular and was used by governments to fight slowdowns and recessions. In the 1980s and in the next three decades, this policy lost much appeal among economists in academia, though less among governments. The financial crisis of 2007–2008 and the following Great Recession brought a sudden revival of interest in and use of fiscal policies. This paper outlines the main criticisms that were directed at the Keynesian fiscal policy from the beginning. Some of these criticisms are less-known than others.

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This paper investigates the evolution of sub-central government borrowing in Spain over the period 1996–2011. The arguments and figures provided show that the intense process of political and fiscal decentralisation that took place over the 1990s and 2000s did not lead to higher debt ratios in terms of GDP at these tiers of government until 2007. Although a kind of overspending bias was in effect until the late 2000s, the paper shows that the evolution of GDP and tax revenues provided regional and local governments with enough resources to vigorously pursue their devolved public policy responsibilities and still keep their debt ratios under control. However, since 2008, when the world financial crisis broke out, the situation has changed dramatically. Even though the crisis originated in the financial sector, the paper concludes by stressing the importance of creating incentives and setting controls through institutional arrangements characterising multilevel government for all tiers of government to save in periods of economic growth in order to confront the impact of recession once it comes.

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, there is an urgent need for relevant thermodynamic data of sodium isophthalic acid derivatives. In this article, we synthesized sodium 5-methylisophthalic acid monohydrate (C 9 H 6 O 4 Na 2 ·H 2 O, s) and sodium isophthalic acid hemihydrate (C 8

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Journal of Flow Chemistry
Authors:
Mais J. Jebrail
,
Naila Assem
,
Jared M. Mudrik
,
Michael D.M. Dryden
,
Kaixiang Lin
,
Andrei K. Yudin
, and
Aaron R. Wheeler

Abstract

A microfluidic technique for combinatorial chemical synthesis of peptidomimetics has been developed. The new method is fast, automated and includes an integrated magnetic separation of inorganic catalysts from reaction products. This proof-of-concept study should lead to methods for generating libraries of compounds suitable for screening for bioactivity.

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formation of a yellow solid anticipated as KC 9 H 6 ON was observed. It was filtered and the filtrate was distilled off to remove excess of solvent. The concentrate was then dried under vacuum by treating it with petroleum ether whereupon black-, green- and

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