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Our aim was to estimate the frequency and characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains occurring in a Romanian teaching hospital. We retrospectively studied isolates from infected or colonized patients treated at the intensive care and surgical units during January 2004-December 2005. The antibiotic susceptibility of MRSA strains and the presence of mecA gene were determined. Consecutively occurring strains isolated through a three-month period were typed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. A total of 423 S. aureus strains were identified, methicillin-resistance was detected in 211 (49.9%) strains. Most of them were multiresistant. One of the MRSA genotypes identified by PFGE was commonly recovered from patients treated in the intensive care unit. According to our results. MRSA strains were frequently isolated pathogens in our hospital and there is an urgent need to enhance infection control efforts.

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An account is given on the activity of the National Center for Phage Typing of Staphylococci in Hungary in the period between 1997 and 2000 related to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains originating mainly from hospital infections and sporadic cases. The rate of multiresistant MRSA strains has decreased gradually from 98.1% in 1997 to 74.6% in 2000, accordingly the typability by phages showed a considerable improvement by the international basic phages. Resistance pattern of MRSA strains became narrower in the period of the examinations. With the exception of erythromycin the rate of resistance decreased probably as a consequence of the increased use of erythomycin. The typing method was completed with the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of macrolide resistance. Among 73 MRSA strains type A was the most frequent macrolide resistance group, while type B, C1 and C2 occurred rarely. Type A was frequent also among the few MSSA and CNS strains. Out of the 168 examined S. aureus strains ermA genes occurred in 81.5%; in MSSA and CNS strains ermC1 genes were frequent, both genes are responsible for the target modification. The msrA gene, encoding the increased efflux, occurred only in CNS strains. Comparing the results obtained by phenotyping (phage typing) and genotyping (AP-PCR) methods it is of note that MRSA strains which proved non-typable by phage typing gave suitable results by the AP-PCR.

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-typed, and tested for presence of toxin genes [ 19 ]. Of 151 isolates, 9.9% belonged to ST398, representing the first report of LA-MRSA strains in Slovenia. Slovenian laboratories also participated in large international studies on S. aureus bloodstream

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032, t008 and t067, while t011, t108 and t034 predominate in LA-MRSA strains [ 10 , 11 ]. The identification of the mobile staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) elements is another method for MRSA typing, with 13 different types

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. Results Isolation of phage particles Forty-eight MRSA strains were examined for prophages. Bacterial cells in the logarithmic phase of growth were treated with MMC. For the prevention of possible bacterial DNA and RNA

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Krisztina Laub, Adrienn Tóthpál, Eszter Kovács, Judit Sahin-Tóth, Andrea Horváth, Szilvia Kardos, and Orsolya Dobay

, or psoriasis), people doing contact sport or other activities leading to skin lesions, as well as animal farming. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were first reported from England by Barber [ 2 ]. Within two decades, health

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Ervin Albert, Rita Sipos, Szilárd Jánosi, Péter Kovács, Árpád Kenéz, Adrienn Micsinai, Zsófia Noszály, and Imre Biksi

., 2017 ). In Hungary, the last surveys on the matter were conducted in the 2000s. Kaszanyitzky et al. (2004) investigated more than 2,000 S. aureus (SA) isolates of livestock origin and detected only five MRSA strains, which were all from dairy

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infections, osteomyelitis, and endocarditis [ 1 ]. The mean prevalence of MRSA in Iran is between 57.2 and 93.3 percent [ 2 ]. Antibiotic misuse has led to high resistance levels in MRSA strains leading to an increased mortality rate, high costs of care and

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Sorour Farzi, Mohsen Rezazadeh, Ahmadreza Mirhosseini, Mohammad Amin Rezazadeh, Farhan Houshyar, and Mohammad Hossein Ahmadi

, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a major threat to human health. MRSA strains are generally classified into healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) and community-associated methicillin

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Sajith Vellappally, Darshan Devang Divakar, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al Kheraif, Ravikumar Ramakrishnaiah, Amer Alqahtani, M. H. N. Dalati, Sukumaran Anil, Aftab Ahmed Khan, and P. R. Harikrishna Varma

[ 7 ]. In various studies, it has been noted that MRSA strains were also resistant to one or more non-β-lactam antibiotics and some of them were multidrug-resistant [ 8 ]. Oral streptococci are the major group of microbes isolated from oral microflora

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