O40 ·16H 2 O (sample A in Table 1 ) and silver nitrate were obtained from Aldrich. All reagents were analytical grade. Besides, fumed silica-aerosil A300 (Oriana, Ukraine) was utilized as support. 1-Octene, 1,7-octadiene, and chlorbenzene (solvent
DTA and X-ray powder diffraction methods were used to study the phase equilibria established in the V9Mo6O40-FeVMoO7 system up to 1000° throughout the whole component concentration range. The experimental results are presented in the form of a phase diagram.
The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of some monovalent counter-ions (NH4+, K+ and Cs+) on thermal behavior of polyoxometalates derived from H3PMo12O40 (HPM) and H4PVMo11O40 (HPVM) by replacing the protons. The IR and UV-VIS-DRS spectra of some acid and neutral NH4+, K+, Cs+ salts, which derived from HPM and HPVM, confirmed the preservation of Keggin units (KU) structure. The X-ray diffraction
spectra clearly showed the presence of a cubic structure. The non-isothermal decomposition of studied polyoxometalates proceeds
by a series of processes: the loss of crystallization water; the loss of O2 accompanying with a reduction of V5+→V4+ and Mo6+→Mo5+; the loss of constitution water started at 360C for HPVM salts and 420C for HPM salts; the decomposition of ammonium ion
over 420C with NH3, N2 and H2O elimination and simultaneous processes of reduction (V5+→ V4+ and Mo6+→ Mo5+ or Mo4+) associating with endothermic effects; reoxidation of Mo5+, Mo4+ and V4+with a strong exothermic effect; destruction of KU to the oxides: P2O5, MoO3 and V2O5 and the crystallization of MoO3.
DTA and XRD methods were applied in studies on phase equilibria established in the system V9Mo6O40-AlVMoO7 up to 1000C over the whole component concentration range. The results were presented in the form of a phase diagram.
The V9Mo6O40−Cr2(MoO4)3 system has been investigated using the differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray phase diffraction methods. The system
has been found not to be a real two-component system over the whole component system.
Phase equilibria have been established in the solid state in the V9Mo6O40-Cr2O3 system. The results obtained have permitted to state that the system of interest, in the subsolidus area, is not a real two-component system in the whole component concentration range.
This paper reports a comparative study of the non-isothermal decompositions of the heteropolyacids HPM and HPVM, with structures
consisting of Keggin units (KUs). Non-isothermal analysis at low heating rates demonstrated the existence of 4 crystal hydrate
species, depending on the temperature. The stability domains of the anhydrous forms of HPM and HPVM were found to be 150–380°C,
respectively. Processing of the TG curves obtained at different heating rates by the Ozawa method revealed that the decomposition
of anhydrous HPM takes place according to a unitary mechanism, whilst for anhydrous HPVM two mechanisms are observed. Thus,
the first part of the constitution water is lost simultaneously with the departure of vanadium from the KU as VO2+, while the second part is lost at higher temperatures as in the case HPM.
This paper reviews the issue of population size (scale effects) in idea-based growth models. It addresses both weak and strong scale effects and incorporates the related distinctive features of the three strata of idea-based growth models. The paper also comments on third-generation models, emphasising their fragile framework due to the limited range of R&D spillover space they can accommodate. It is argued that because of the shortcomings of the third-generation models, a precise mapping of the relationship between population size and economic growth requires further research.
The balance-of-payments can act as a constraint on the rate of output growth, on putting a limit to the growth in the level of demand to which supply can adapt. Regional economies might be particularly sensitive to this effect, since they are presumably more integrated among them. In this paper, we examine this issue for the case of the 17 Spanish regions over the period 1988–2009, and calculate their balance-of-payments-constrained growth rates. By comparing these balance-of-payments-constrained growth rates with the actual growth rates, we would be able to assess whether the balance-of-payments has worked as a constraint on growth.
PW 12 O40 /SiO 2 catalyst showed high catalytic activity and high tolerance to sulfur and nitrogen compounds in the hydrocracking reaction of n -decane. The main reason was that the hydrogen spillover effect happened on the catalyst surface, which