In 2014, during the archaeological investigations carried out by the University of Bologna (Department of History and Cultures – Section of Archaeology), within the Ostia Marina Project, in the suburban neighborhood out of Porta Marina (block IV, ix), a new building has been found with outstanding Mithraic features. The building, for the special type of the marble floor of the spelaeum, has been conventionally called the “Mithraeum of colored marbles”. The spelaeum has a single bench, a ritual well and a flowerbed for a sacred plant. It differs clearly both in form and size from the typical patterns of the mithraea discovered until now in ancient Ostia. On the basis of the currently available data, a very late chronology (end of 4th century AD) can be proposed for the building.
fenomeno poteva essere ricondotto ad origini diverse, a seconda che comparisse ad Ostia o a Roma. Secondo la sua teoria, la forma idem che collega due sostantivi in dativo deve considerarsi come una variazione dialettale dell’avverbio item quando si
Very likely due to its modest nature, the Cosa Mithraeum has been mentioned in scholarly publications only four times – each in passing – since its discovery in 1954. This sparse attention, restricted solely to literature on Cosa, has meant that the mithraeum is well-known among those intimately familiar with the colony, but has languished in complete obscurity among Mithraic scholars for the past half century. In addition to bringing the Cosa Mithraeum to the attention of a wider audience, this article also argues for a re-evaluation of the most recent dating of the mithraeum. Recent advances in scholarship on mithraea at Ostia give ample reason to suggest that the original date for the Cosa Mithraeum might be more accurate than later interpreters have assumed. Furthermore, the ongoing excavations of Cosa's bath complex, conducted by Florida State University, Bryn Mawr College, and Tübingen University have revealed a city that was still quite active during the 2nd century CE. In light of these developments, this article is an overdue study of the Cosa Mithraeum and its role in the history of the colony.
The highest number of mithraea in urban context of the ancient world come from Ostia. Although we do not know the whole city, mithraea have been found in all districts of the town. The spread and fortune of the Mithraic worship are also attested by the plenteous epigraphic and sculptural materials. This research deals with the Mithraism at Ostia, focusing on the particular case of monograms, just mentioned by Giovanni Becatti in his seminal work about mithraea at Ostia, dating back to more than sixty years ago. After the recent discovery of the Mithraeum of colored marbles by the archaeologists of the Ostia Marina Project (University of Bologna), it seems necessary to examine and contextualize the phenomenology of Mithraic monograms at Ostia, as is done in relation to similar processes which involve the Christian world.
. = AAVV: Scavi di Luni. Relazione preliminare delle campagne di scavo 1972–1974. A cura di A. Frova. Roma 1977.
Martin-De Sena 2003 = A. Martin— E. C. De Sena : Ostia-Overview of the pottery. ActaRCRF
For vinegrowers, particularly those in Transdanubia, Upper Hungary and Transylvania, St Donatus, martyr bishop of Arezzo, is a popular patron saint. Devotion to the saint began in earnest in Germany during the baroque period. When his relics were taken from Rome and Münster in the Rhineland an accompanying priest was struck by lightning only to survive unscathed. It was a miracle that was explained by the divine intervention of St Donatus. Devotion to the saint consequently spread rapidly in the Rhine wine region. Since the 18th century processions have also been held and supplications made to the saint in Austria and Hungary on his feast day (August 7th) to ward off natural disasters, lightning and hail. The feast day of St Donatus is celebrated on two different days: August 7th in Székesfehérvár and Csókakő and July 14th in Budafok, with Eger celebrating on the second Sunday in July. The explanation lies in the Roman martyrology, where August 7th marks the martyrdom Donatus shared with the monk Hilarinus, while July 16th was the date their bodies were taken to Ostia. It is account of their joint martyrdom that St Donatus’s death is also commemorated on this day.
Elsősorban római feliratokon találkozhatunk azzal a jelenséggel, hogy az idem névmás hímnem nominativusban tűnik fel olyan helyeken, ahol másik nem, más eset (általában dativus) vagy adverbium lenne indokolt. A feliratgyűjtemények az idem alakokat általában adverbiumként értelmezik, és itemre javítják. E. H. Sturtevant viszont azt állítja, hogy míg Ostiában az idem alakok az item adverbium helyi, dialektális változatai, ugyanezeket az alakokat Rómában tudatosan használt nominativusnak kell tekintenünk. A tanulmány Sturtevant elméletének kritikai vizsgálatával az idem névmás megkövesedésének és az item adverbiummal való esetleges összeolvadásának kérdésével foglalkozik.
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C oletti -P avolini 1996 M. V oletti . C. P avolini . : Ceramica comune da Ostia. In: Les céramiques communes de Campanie et de Narbonnaise . Actes des Journées d’étude organisée par le Centre Jean Bérard et la Soprintendenza