performed for qualitycontrolling parenteral products.
The outcome of this small comparison further demonstrates the struggle of producers of probiotics who aim for clear statements on the contents of their products, but who depend on external
Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to Campylobacter, such data is currently unavailable. Although both pasteurized and formula milk are pathogen free and prepared in a quality controlled manner, the effect they have on the virulence of Campylobacter species is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of cow, goat, horse, and formula milk on Campylobacter invasion into intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, a pathogenic feature of this bacterial species, using a gentamicin exclusion invasion assay. We found that all milk products modulated the invasion of Campylobacter species into the Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Control experiments showed that the milks were not toxic for the Caco-2 cells and that the effect on invasion is caused by heat labile (e.g., milk proteins) or heat stable (e.g., sugar/lipids) components depending on the Campylobacter species studied. This in vitro study shows for the first time that pasteurized and formula milk affect the invasion of Campylobacter. We recommend a prospective study to examine whether pasteurized and formula milk affect Campylobacteriosis.
Anon. (2004): Quality standards of Indian medicinal plants 2004 . Vol. 3. — Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, pp. 236–245.
Anon. (2006): Qualitycontrol methods for medicinal plant materials 2006 . — World
Lai, T. L. 1995. Sequential change-point detection in qualitycontrol and dynamic systems. J. Royal Statist. Soc. Series B (Methodological) 57:613-658.
Sequential change-point detection in qualitycontrol and dynamic systems
. E., Hentze, M. W. (2002) Integration of splicing, transport and translation to achieve mRNA qualitycontrol by the nonsense-mediated decay pathway. Genome Biol. 3 , REVIEWS 1006.
Integration of splicing, transport and