Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for :

  • "Renaissance" x
  • Chemistry and Chemical Engineering x
Clear All

Abstract  

The notion of fire/light/heat/energy is recognized as an integrating element in the pathway of ordering matter and society, and its historical aspects are thoroughly reviewed. Fire is argued to be a philosophical archetype and its role in the early concept of four elements is discussed. The Indian, Arabic and Greek historical bases are mentioned. Alchemy is briefly reviewed as a source of the wider adoption of fire. The era of renaissance and the new age are also included. The message of fire/heat is nowadays focused on the progress of civilization, with the assumption of engines as information transducers based on the conscious exploitation of fire. The role of chaos is emphasized. Overall, a condensed but consistent view is given of the various concepts that emerged during the historical progress of the understanding of heat (noting 61 references).

Restricted access

  

Science of Heat and Thermophysical Studies A Generalized Approach to Thermal Analysis by Jaroslav Šestk Hardbound, ISBN: 0-444-51954-8, 486 pages, publication date: Elsevier, Amsterdam 2005, price 175 Euro Jaroslav Šestk has been a leading figure of thermal analysis for decades. He was a founding member of Thermochimica Acta and he is a member of editorial board of Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. He is author/ coauthor of nearly 300 papers that have received approximately 2500 citations. He was presented by several scientific awards, including an ICTAC award in 1992. His present book summarizes his extensive, comprehensive knowledge on the science of heat and the book is dedicated to the 40th anniversary of ICTAC. The term ‘thermophysical studies‘ in the title is used in a generalized sense, as the chapters of the book reveals: 1. Some Philosophical Aspects of Scientific Research. 2. Miscellaneous Features of Thermal Science. 3. Fire as a Philosophical and Alchemical Archetype. 4. Concept of Heat in the Renaissance and New Age. 5. Understanding Heat, Temperature and Gradients. 6. Heat, Entropy and Information. 7. Thermodynamics and Thermostatics. 8. Thermodynamics, Econophysics, Ecosystems and Societal Behavior. 9. Thermal Physics of Processes Dynamics. 10. Modeling Reaction Mechanism: The use of Euclidian and Fractal Geometry. 11. Non-Isothermal Kinetics by Thermal Analysis. 12. Thermometry and Calorimetry. 13. Thermophysical Examinations and Temperature Control. 14. Afterward (including a brief history of ICTA creation) 15. Literature: 700 citations 16. Appendix: short characteristics of some selected individualities of the general history and recent thermal analysis as related to the book contents. There is a particularly careful exploration of the philosophical and historical background of the treated subjects. The science history involves early Greek philosophical views, medieval alchemy, Renaissance upgrading as well as the recent and modern scientific achievements of the 18–20th Centuries. The author has also included views on the present and future aspects of the subject (caloric as entropy, information and organization, non-stationary heat diffusion, quantum diffusion and self-organization, thermal radiation and the modern concept of vacuum, etc.). However, in the present short book review there is no space to list all the subjects included in the book, accordingly I try to illustrate the broad spectrum of the work by two examples. The first chapter includes, among others, a few pages on the author’s view on scientific publications in a world where approximately one million publications appear in each year in roughly ten million pages. The second chapter includes, among others, a brief review on the energy resources and their durability, sustainable protection of our environment, the greenhouse effect caused by the CO2 emission, and the corresponding options of mankind. The modern theory of the heat science is outlined using a pertinent level of mathematical apparatus of so called ‘near-equilibrium‘ thermodynamics (heating rate and the effect of temperature changes, non-equilibrium phenomena paying attention to nucleation and related kinetic and T-T-T phase diagrams, equilibrium background and the kinetic degree of transformation, variant and invariant processes, thermodynamics of glass transition). An unique separate chapter deals with the applicability of the thermodynamic theory for the description of social and economic phenomena (thermodynamic laws and human feelings, strategy of survivals). Two chapters treat in details the kinetics and mechanism of the thermal reactions (suitability of various models) and a relatively brief chapter of 35 pages reviews thermometry (mainly theory and practice of DSC and DTA) and calorimetry. Keeping in mind the broad subject area of the book, one cannot expect truly comprehensive reviews in a single volume of around 500 pages. The author, however, has obviously employed a thoughtful weighing and selection of the information available and provided a generalized outlook useful to the readers and their better orientation in modern sciences. Gbor Vrhegyi Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences E-mail: varhegyi@chemres.hu

Restricted access
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Francesca Caterina Izzo, Elisabetta Zendri, Guido Biscontin and Eleonora Balliana

Introduction Drying oils are habitually referred as the traditional binding media, known at the Roman times and reintroduced by Van Dijk during the Renaissance [ 1 ]. Nevertheless, lipidic binders are quite commonly used in

Restricted access

-induced polymer reactions undergo currently a renaissance and gain increasing significance in the field [ 37 , 38 ]. 3. Multistep Reactions Homo- and statistical block copolymers can be made in virtually any chain length (up to

Open access

. Edwards , HG , Farwell , DW . The conservational heritage of wall paintings and buildings: an FT-Raman spectroscopic study of prehistoric, Roman, mediaeval and Renaissance lime substrates and mortars . J Raman Spectrosc 2008 39 : 985 – 992 10.1002/jrs

Restricted access

mechanistic concept was originally proposed by Volmer in 1929 [ 34 ] and subsequently forgotten for 60 years [ 35 ]. Its renaissance, to explain the thermal decompositions of solids through the congruent dissociative vaporization of reactant (CDV mechanism

Restricted access