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I. Kleomenés, spártai király, az ókor egyik kevéssé ismert, ám annál jelentősebb személyisége. A történetírói hagyomány torzításai miatt nehezen ismerhető fel valódi szerepe, ám minden jel arra utal, hogy nélküle sem Spárta politikája, sem a Kr. e. 6/5. század fordulójának görög világa nem értelmezhető igazán. Ezen dolgozat a Kleomenésre vonatkozó ókori adatok vizsgálatával igyekszik fényt deríteni a ,,negatív hagyomány'' lehetséges okaira, és így árnyaltabb képet adni a kor viszonyairól.

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The Erxadieis inscription

SEG xxvi 461; Meiggs-Lewis, 1988 reissue, 67 bis; Nomima i 55

Acta Antiqua Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
Author: P. Rhodes

This inscription recording an unequal alliance between the Spartans and the Erxadieis has been given dates ranging over almost the whole of the Peloponnesian League’s existence: recent arguments for a late date on the grounds of the formulations used are not cogent; the “exiles” mentioned are probably the Messenians settled at Naupactus between c. 455 and c. 400, and the lettering favours either c. 450 or c. 426.

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In his individual way of reporting speeches (cf. 1. 22. 1) Thucydides presents a speech delivered by Pericles in the Athenian Assembly before the beginnings of the Peloponnesian War (1. 140–144). Holding the persistent view that the Peloponnesians have to be opposed Pericles makes every effort to persuade the Athenians of the necessity of war. His suggestions which were accepted by the demos are among the causes of the Peloponnesian War.

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When seen or presumed in the actions of gods rather than of men, phthonos (‘spite’) has traditionally been regarded as a disturbingly “primitive” form of behaviour, punishing those who have done nothing to deserve punishment (but are simply too successful or prosperous for the deity’s liking), and chiefly manifesting itself in such authors as Herodotus and such genres as Attic tragedy. After the fifth century BC, orthodoxy holds, this gives way to a more enlightened world-view; now spite is confined to humans, and the gods treat humankind more justly. But K. J. Dover once voiced his suspicion that belief in divine phthonos lingered on, and here I try to show that he was right. In the fourth century, divine phthonos itself is still spoken of (by such disparate authors as Aristophanes and Xenophon); and in later writers, from Polybius to Pausanias, the idea of tyche (‘chance’) takes on both the vocabulary and. more important, the substantive role of supernatural phthonos .

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The land-law of Solon can be divided into two parts: on the one hand it is a seisachtheia (the shaking off of burdens), which is the extracting of border-stones in the “serving land” (and has nothing to do with indebtedness), and on theother hand it is therepurchase of citizens who had been unlawfully sold abroad. The legal status of the social class called hektemoroi was similar to that of the helots in Sparta and the penestai in Thessaly. The hektemoroi were liberated by the reform of Solon, thus they become thetes, i.e. lawful citizens. This measure was taken much rather in favour of the big landowners than of the hektemoroi. The latter could not get their former lands, since the lands were usually taken by aristocrats to grow exportable olive and grapevine. (It wasonly the export of cornthat was forbidden by Solon.) Raising the thetes to the rank of citizens became the most important element of the Athenian development. (At this point the economicmodels of Athens, Sparta, Thessaly and Crete diverge.) The social class of the thetes gave Athens not only a supply for agricultural labour but also the masses of craftsmen and shipmen, who served the city even as oarsmen while it was becoming a great power…

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Antike und Christentum

Zur Überlagerung intertextueller Bezugnahmen in Heinrich Bölls Kurzgeschichte „Wanderer, kommst du nach Spa...“

Studia Slavica
Author: Magdolna Orosz

.): Semiotics around the World: Synthesis in Diversity. Berlin/New York 1997. 445–448. „Wanderer, kommst du nach Sparta, verkündige dorten, du habest uns hier liegen gesehen, wie das Gesetz es befahl.“ In

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