This paper traces the international history of Eastern Europe in the 20th century within the analytical framework of the national self-determination/independence paradigm. It argues that in 1918 the allied powers dissolved the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in the hope that the newly established nation states would strengthen European stability and would balance Russian and German power. The Munich agreement was not a mistake but a conscious effort to reorganize the continent on a more stable basis after it turned out that the international system created for middle Europe in Paris was not working. Thereafter Great Britain strove to achieve continental balance by surrendering the region to German, later to Soviet hegemony. This would also be the policy of the United States until 1948 when the Truman administration decided that the restoration of national independence in Eastern Europe would create a safer Europe. After the failure of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution the U.S. returned to the position that continental stability took precedence over the independence of the Soviet satellites, a view shared by the major NATO allies. This remained the Western position through 1989. The restoration of national independence and continental reunification originated in Eastern Europe, which for the first time since 1918 was a policy maker in the international arena.
The connecting theme for all museums of the 21st century is the meaning of the museum as a medium at present time and the discussible question, why something is mediated. The aim of this article is to introduce and give theoretical reasons for both the ideas that were born and realized at the Estonian Open Air Museum (EOAM) during the final years of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century and those that are still waiting to be realized. The EOAM is the central state museum of vernacular architecture in Estonia. Its experience is of interest from two complementary aspects.First, getting to know the history and present of the EOAM inspires one to reflect upon the stability of an open air museum as a medium in the context of a certain cultural memory and notwithstanding the conditions of cultural competition in the 21st century.Secondly, the experience of the EOAM justifies the flexibility of different museological ideas and methods, the possibility of tolerance and intertwining as well as the economy of choices. In the 21st century open air museums take not only theme parks as a pattern, but they also approach the classical museums of history and folk culture.
The imperial cult played important role throughout the whole antique world. It reached Rome with Caesar. In the centuries following him the divinity of the emperors were accepted by the whole population of the empire. The cult — in the eyes of the Roman population — assured the wellbeing of the state and its inhabitants. The only exception were Christians (together with Jews), who on the bases of their faith regarded emperor worship as idolatry. This is why, they became, in the eyes of the contemporary Roman population, atheists and the enemy of the state. This paper deals with the new results of the research of the imperial cult of Rome and its relationship with Christians.
story Observing stories about magical healing as a folklore genre allows for not only stability of the motifs but also for the possibility of further transmission. Indeed, some of them are known not only to the healer and patient but also to other
With a few exceptions, the scholarly literature on Hungary’s Gypsy music remains frozen in an increasingly remote past, in what Budapest journalist Imre Déri in 1912 called “the old patriarchal relationship between the Gypsies and the gentlemenmerry-makers.” Yet Gypsy musicians thrived in the twentieth century, through dramatic social and economic changes, adapting to new institutional frameworks and audience expectations. In the early days of the Hungarian Radio, culture brokers attempted to regularize sound production to fit the technical demands of this new medium, in the process asserting new controls over the musicians; their proposed changes led to a public conflict with the musicians, the “Gypsy war” of 1934. Under socialism the state initially strove to break the “feudalist-capitalist” framework of the previous system by closing restaurants, but then reopened them as sites for workers’ entertainment and tourist revenue; additionally, Hungary’s professional folk ensembles (created there and throughout the East bloc after the model of Igor Moiseyev’s ensemble in the USSR) filled the ranks of their orchestras with Gypsy musicians almost exclusively until the 1980s. Using oral history interviews and journalistic and archival sources, this essay shows how these artists sought both economic stability and recognition as they negotiated changing conditions.
Authors:Katalin Biró, Zoltán Elekes, Imre Uzonyi, and Árpád Kiss
Toulhoat, N., Courel, P., Trocellier, P., Gosset, J. 1993 Stability and distribution of lithium and boron in minerals. Nuclear Instruments and Methods B77, 436-443.
Stability and distribution of lithium and boron in minerals
Authors:Tobias Haug, Karen Bontempo, Lorraine Leeson, Jemina Napier, Brenda Nicodemus, Beppie Van den Bogaerde, and Myriam Vermeerbergen
Bontempo , K. & Napier , J.
2014 . Evaluating Emotional Stability as a Predictor of Interpreter Competence and Aptitude for Interpreting . In: Pöchhacker , F. & Liu , M. (eds) Aptitude for Interpreting . Amsterdam : John Benjamins