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The pharmacokinetics and the influence of food on the kinetic profile and bioavailability of doxycycline was studied after a single intravenous (i.v.) and oral dose of 10.0 mg/kg body weight in 7-week-old broiler chickens. Following i.v. administration the drug was rapidly distributed in the body with a distribution half-life of 0.21 ± 0.01 h. The elimination half-life of 6.78 ± 0.06 h was relatively long and resulted from both a low total body clearance of 0.139 ± 0.007 L/h·kg and a large volume of distribution of 1.36 ± 0.06 L/kg. After oral administration to fasted chickens, the absorption of doxycycline was quite fast and substantial as shown by the absorption half-life of 0.39 ± 0.03 h, the maximal plasma concentration of 4.47 ± 0.16 —g/mL and the time to reach the Cmax of 1.73 ± 0.06 h. The distribution and the final elimination of the drug were slower than after i.v. administration. The absolute bioavailability was 73.4 ± 2.5%. The presence of food in the intestinal tract reduced and extended the absorption (t1/2a = 1.23 ± 0.21 h; Cmax = 3.07 ± 0.23 µg/mL; tmax = 3.34 ± 0.21 h). The absolute bioavailability was reduced to 61.1% ± 4.4%.

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substrate ISR (a calcium channel blocker antihypertensive BCS II drug having oral absolute bioavailability of 15%–34% due to presystemic metabolism) by inhibiting the enzyme using bioenhancer like Ru, thereby improving the oral bioavailability. The ONbp

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