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Abstract  

Enthalpies of sublimation of acridine, 9-acridinamine, N-methyl-9-acridinamine, 10-methyl-9-acridinimine, N,N-dimethyl-9-acridinamine and N-methyl-10-methyl-9-acridinimine were determined by fitting to thermogravimetric curves with the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. These values compare well with crystal lattice energies predicted theoretically as the sum of electrostatic, dispersive and repulsive interactions. Partial charges for these calculations were obtained on an ab initio level, while atomic parameters were taken from literature.

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Abstract  

The melting points and melting enthalpies of nine phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates—nitro-, methoxy- or halogen-substituted in the phenyl fragment—and their 9-phenoxycarbonyl-10-methylacridinium trifluoromethanesulphonate derivatives were determined by DSC. The volatilisation temperatures and enthalpies of phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates were either measured by DSC or obtained by fitting TG curves to the Clausius–Clapeyron relationship. For the compounds whose crystal structures are known, crystal lattice energies and enthalpies were determined computationally as the sum of electrostatic, dispersive and repulsive interactions. By combining the enthalpies of formation of gaseous phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates or 9-phenoxycarbonyl-10-methylacridinium trifluoromethanesulphonate ions, obtained by the DFT method, and the corresponding enthalpies of sublimation and/or crystal lattice enthalpies, the enthalpies of formation of the compounds in the solid phase were predicted. In the case of the phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates, the computationally predicted crystal lattice enthalpies correspond reasonably well with the experimentally obtained enthalpies of sublimation. The crystal lattices of phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates are stabilised predominantly by dispersive interactions between molecules, whilst the crystal lattices of their quaternary salts are stabilised by electrostatic interactions between ions.

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Abstract  

The melting enthalpies and melting points of phenyl acridine-9-carboxylate, its eleven alkyl-substituted derivatives in the phenyl fragment and eight 9-phenoxycarbonyl-10-methylacridinium trifluoromethanesulphonates derived from them, were determined by DSC. The volatilisation enthalpies and temperatures of twelve phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates were either measured by DSC or obtained by fitting TG curves to the Clausius–Clapeyron relationship. For the compounds whose crystal structures are known, crystal lattice enthalpies were determined computationally as the sum of electrostatic, dispersive and repulsive interactions. By combining the enthalpies of formation of gaseous phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates or 9-phenoxycarbonyl-10-methylacridinium and trifluoromethanesulphonate ions, obtained by quantum chemistry methods, and the corresponding enthalpies of sublimation or crystal lattice enthalpies, the enthalpies of formation of the compounds in the solid phase were predicted. In the case of the phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates, the computationally predicted crystal lattice enthalpies correspond reasonably well to the experimentally obtained enthalpies of sublimation. Analysis of crystal lattice enthalpy contributions indicates that the crystal lattices of phenyl acridine-9-carboxylates are stabilised predominantly by dispersive interactions between molecules, whereas the crystal lattices of their quaternary salts are stabilised by electrostatic interactions between ions.

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Kononenko, A. P. (1965): Reasons for the multicolored fluorescence of cells stained with acridine orange. — Zhurn. Prikladn. Spektr. 3 : 878–882. Kononenko A. P. Reasons for the

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A TLC method with densitometric detection is described for qualitative and quantitative analysis of seven azaarenes — acridine, benzo( h )quinoline, benzo( a )acridine (with benzo( f )quinoline), benzo( c )acridine, dibenzo( a , c )acridine, dibenzo( a , j )acridine (with phenanthridine), and dibenzo( a , h )acridine. The compounds were separated on RP-18/UV plates, in a horizontal chamber, with dichloromethane- n -hexane-2-propanol, 6:4:0.1 ( v / v ), as mobile phase. Quantification of the azaarenes was performed densitometrically by measurement of fluorescence intensity at 380 nm. Limits of determination were from 0.04 to 0.30 ng per spot. The method was used for analysis of the azaarenes in an extract of grilled meat after multistage clean-up based on tandem solid-phase extraction (SPE) on columns packed with Extrelut diatomaceous earth and the cation exchanger propylsulfonic acid (PRS). The concentrations of the benzoacridine and dibenzoacridine isomers were in the range 0.2 to 2.9 ng g −1 meat. The limits of determination in meat were 0.1 ng g −1 for benzo( a )acridine, benzo( c )acridine, dibenzo( a , h )acridine, and dibenzo( a , j )acridine, 0.2 ng g −1 for dibenzo( a , c )acridine, and 0.6 ng g −1 for benzo( h )quinoline.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: S Popovic, S Popovic, S Popovic, N Arsenijevic, N Arsenijevic, N Arsenijevic, D Baskic, D Baskic, and D Baskic

Currently used assays for the quantification of apoptotic cells uptake by phagocytes have several methodological problems. Our assay overcomes some of these problems. As a source of apoptotic cells we used peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from the patients with chronic lymphoblast leukaemia. Apoptosis was induced by incubating cells with cycloheximide for up to 24 h. The assay was performed in suspension of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. For the visualisation of the phagocytes and phagocyted cells and discrimination of phagocyted from bound apoptotic cells we used Acridine orange/Ethidium bromide double staining. Here we offer a simple test which enables reliable measurement and it can show the difference of phagocytic potential between different individuals

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Tadakazu S, Shigeki S: A staining procedure for micronucleus test using new methylene blue and acridine orange. Mutat. Res. 470, 103–108 (2000) Shigeki S

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Abstract  

10-Methylacridinium chloride, bromide and iodide were prepared in crystalline forms (the first two salts as monohydrates) and subjected to thermogravimetric investigations. Decomposition of the compounds is initially accompanied by the liberation of water (in case of monohydrates), halomethanes and acridine molecules. As decomposition proceeds, side reactions occur which are reflected in a complex pattern of thermogravimetric curves. TG traces corresponding to the initial decomposition stage were used to determine the kinetic characteristics of the thermal dissociation of the salts. MNDO/d, AM1 and PM3 methods were employed independently to examine reaction pathways and to predict thermodynamic and kinetic barriers for the thermal decomposition of the compounds. These data were subsequently supplemented with theoretically determined crystal lattice energies, which enabled the relevant characteristics for the decomposition of crystalline phases to be predicted. The theoretically predicted characteristics are qualitatively comparable with those originating from thermogravimetric investigations, which allows one to believe that both are valid.

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Summary Thermo-XRD-analysis is applied to identify whether or not the adsorbed organic species penetrates into the interlayer space of the smectites mineral. In this technique an oriented smectite sample is gradually heated to temperatures above the irreversible dehydration of the clay, and after each thermal treatment is diffracted by X-ray at ambient conditions. In the thermal treatment of organo-clays, under air atmosphere at temperatures above 250°C, the organic matter is in part oxidized and charcoal is formed from the organic carbon. In inert atmosphere e.g. under vacuum above 250°C the organic matter is pyrolyzed and besides small molecules, charcoal is formed. If the adsorbed organic compound is located in the interlayer space, the charcoal is formed in that space, preventing the collapse of the clay. A basal spacing of above 1.12 nm suggests that during the adsorption the organic compound penetrated into the interlayer space. Thermo-XRD-analyses of montmorillonite complexes with anilines, fatty acids, alizarinate, protonated Congo red and of complexes of other smectites with acridine orange are described. To obtain information about spacings of the different tactoids that comprise the clay mixture, curve-fitting calculations on the X-ray diffractograms were adapted.

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