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The paper provides a general evaluation of inflation targeting in Poland with some reference to challenges faced by major central banks. First, it argues that inflation targeting has proved to be relatively successful in Poland and attributes this success to a bias towards the aggressive mitigation of inflationary risks, whenever they have arisen. Second, it briefly explains why the National Bank of Poland does not need to search for an alternative to inflation targeting. Then, it presents the negative aspects of the price level targeting and nominal GDP targeting. Third, it refers to the post- EU accession experience of Poland as being supportive for the “leaning against the wind” approach to monetary policy conducting. Fourth, it argues that such an approach is supported by evidence on the effects of the crisis’ outburst and aggressive interest rate cuts on trust in central banks. Fifth, it indicates the determinants of slow post-crisis restructuring and persistently high uncertainty as desired priorities in the research agenda in central banks.

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A 2010 banking survey of 42 foreign bank executives by Price Waterhouse Coopers ranked competition from “domestic” Chinese banks as their primary concern. This outranked the “regulatory environment” which had been number one for the previous two years. Several reasons were cited by foreign bank managers but three stand out: (1) declining market share for foreign banks due to reduced number of multinationals doing business in China, (2) foreign banks reluctance to lend locally due to the global economic slowdown, (3) the aggressive lending strategies of Chinese banks. This paper focuses on the new reality of contemporary Chinese banking practice. We believe Chinese banks are learning and adapting. They are gaining expertise in a wide array of bank operations such as asset management, branching, securities, leasing and many more. To better understand the nature and context of growing Chinese bank competitiveness, we introduce and apply the concept financial “econiche”. Financial econiche refers to the learning and adapting that takes place in a specific financial “ecological” surrounding with attention paid to the macroeconomic need for harmonious development. Econiche theory borrows heavily from similar ideas in the natural world. We construct an evaluation indexation system based on the econiche theory, and use Huaxia bank as a case study.

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– 414 . Eagly , A. H. – Steffen , V. J. ( 1986 ): Gender and Aggressive Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Social Psychological Literature . Psychological Bulletin , 100 ( 3

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Acta Oeconomica
Authors: Vladan Pavlović, Goranka Knežević, Marijana Joksimović and Dušan Joksimović

. ( 1976 ): The First Digit Problem . The American Mathematical Monthly , 83 ( 7 ): 521 – 538 . Rose , J. M. ( 2007 ): Attention to Evidence of Aggressive Financial

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the Asian Century. Particularly the latter, the broad and aggressive use of artificial intelligence renders the challenge of Chinese state capitalism to a much more formidable challenge to the US capitalism than the Soviet Union could ever marshal

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RMB's share of global currency reserves will systematically, though slowly, rise. Undoubtedly, at first at the expense of US dollar, which will also have its political implications. Furthermore, China, provoked by the US hostility and aggressive trade

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balance sheet. The loan to deposit rate is used to decide if the policy of the bank was aggressive and risky or not, which has a significant influence on the liquidity risk as well. Thus, this group includes: Liquidity rate: (Cash and central bank deposit

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highly ranked universities ( Nofri 2015 ). Others regard the aggressive and wide-spread pursuit of building world-class universities coupled with an inside need for expanding higher education as a mean to create an extremely stratified system ( Shen 2018

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In the background, of course, we have presidential elections in the US at the end of 2020. In general, President Trump's rhetoric on Beijing turned increasingly aggressive as the coronavirus outbreak worsened in the US. Mid-May this year, the Commerce

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The purpose of social co-ordination mechanisms is to co-ordinate the activities of individuals and organisations specialised in the distribution of work. The paper reviews five basic types of mechanisms: market, bureaucratic, ethical, aggressive and co-operative co-ordination. Today’s world operates on the basis of a duality: international cooperation is based on nation states, in which the public administrations work according to bureaucratic coordination. However, the increasingly globalised market responds to the logic of market coordination. The article argues that in terms of understanding the working of public administration, the various coordination mechanisms are of crucial importance, especially where various mechanisms meet, such as the relationship between nation states and multinational corporations.

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