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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Sandy Pacheco-Vega, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Diana Saldaña-Simental, Luis Sánchez-Anguiano, Misael Salcedo-Jáquez, Agar Ramos-Nevárez, Oliver Liesenfeld, José Márquez-Conde, Sandra Cerrillo-Soto, Lucio Martínez-Ramírez, and Carlos Guido-Arreola

2004 363 1965 1976 Dubey JP (2010): Toxoplasmosis of animals and humans, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida

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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: M. Pásztói, P. Misják, B. György, B. Aradi, T. G. Szabó, B. Szántó, M. Cs. Holub, Gy. Nagy, A. Falus, and E. I. Buzás

.C. Steere 1988 An animal model for Lyme arthritis Ann N Y Acad Sci 539 264 – 273 . 52. E

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Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists 1990 Church, D. C., Pond, W. G. (1988): Basic Animal Nutrition and

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in plants and animals conserved? Nature Immunol. 6, 973–979. Ausubel F. M. Are immune signaling pathways in plants and animals conserved? Nature

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peripheral circulations: longterm results in an animal model using the TriMaxx stent. J. Vasc. Surg. 45 , 821–827. Schwartz L. B. Comparison of the vascular responses to balloon

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( 1963 ): Germfree life and gnotobiology . Academic Press–New York. pp. 1 – 497 8. Al-Asmakh M , Zadjali F : Use of germ-free animal models in

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Á. Horváth, P. Sántha, V. Horváth, Nóra Török, I. Nagy, G. Jancsó, Cs. Vágvölgyi, and F. Somogyvári

A new, rapid method is described which permits the genotyping of genetically modified animals from a microlitre volume of whole blood samples via one step polymerase chain reaction amplification. The major advantage of the presented method is the exclusion of a DNA preparation step, which significantly reduces the time expenditure and work load of the genetic testing. Pilot studies indicate, that this method is efficient and applicable also on tissue biopsies and larger amount of blood providing a rapid and reliable new technique over conventional genotyping approaches.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Danica Matusovits, Zsuzsanna Suba, D. Takács, Kinga Turzó, K. Donath, and A. Fazekas

The aim of this pilot investigation was to develop a new animal model for studying the effects on osteogenesis of agents used in the guided bone regeneration technique. As test material, a mixture of two osseoconductive materials with different physico-chemical characteristics was used. One component of the mixture was Bio-Oss, a bovine hydroxyapatite; the other was Cerasorb, a synthetic tricalcium phosphate. The mixture consisited of 50 volume percent of Bio-Oss and 50 volume percent of Cerasorb. In in vivo pilot experiment, bone wounds were prepared in the proximal third of both femurs of rabbits. A Cerasorb + Bio-Oss mixture was inserted on the test side and the same amount of sterile buffered physiological solution on the control side. After healing for 4 weeks, the bone segments were embedded and cut without decalcification, using the Exact cutting and grinding system. The density of the newlyformed bone was evaluated histomorphometrically. On the Cerasorb + Bio-Oss test side the bone density was almost 1.5 times higher than that on the control side. These results demonstrated that the applied animal model is appropriate for investigation of the effects on osteogenesis of biocompatible graft materials such as Bio-Oss and Cerasorb.

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Farmland ponds represent habitats with a high conservation value that make a significant contribution to regional biodiversity. Understanding the influence of plant species composition and environmental variables in driving variations in animal species composition in ponds is an important issue in the fields of ecological research and conservation biology. Using variance partitioning techniques to quantify independent effects, we examined how plant species composition, local-landscape configuration and physicochemical variables interact in influencing aquatic insect and amphibian community composition. The ponds investigated in this study were located in the Site of Community Importance — Special Protected Area (Natura 2000 Network) “Monte Labbro — Alta Valle dell’Albegna” (Tuscany, central Italy). Our results showed that: (i) plant community composition (such as Carex hirta, Glicerya fluitans, Potamogeton natans, Typha latifolia) is a good predictor for amphibian but not for aquatic insect species composition; (ii) aquatic insect species composition was more strongly affected by the landscape context, whereas for amphibians the local characteristics of the ponds were determining; (iii) the physicochemical context is a poor predictor for these animal taxa; (iv) lastly, and notably, the explanatory variables explained a high proportion of the total variation in amphibian and aquatic insect species composition. Our results have important implications with respect to the creation of new ponds, which should preferentially take place close to semi-natural grasslands and other wetlands, in order to maintain greater connectivity, and away from urban areas. Moreover, larger ponds are preferable for the preservation of pond biodiversity. The management and conservation of ponds is necessary to ensure the protection of habitats, the survival of individual species and overall pond biodiversity.

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Automated behavioural observations are routinely used in many fields of biology, including ethology, behavioural ecology and physiology. When preferences for certain resources are investigated, the focus is often on simple response variables, such as duration and frequency of visits to choice chambers. Here we present an automated motion detector system that use passive infrared sensors to eliminate many drawbacks of currently existing methods. Signals from the sensors are processed by a custom-built interface, and after unnecessary data is filtered by a computer software, the total time and frequency of the subject’s visits to each of the choice chambers are calculated. We validate the detector system by monitoring (using the system) and in the same time video recording mating preferences of zebra finches in a four-way choice apparatus. Manual scoring of the video recordings showed very high consistency with data from the detector system both for time and for frequency of visits. Furthermore, the validation revealed that if we used micro-switches or light barriers, the most commonly applied automatic detection techniques, this would have resulted in approximately 22% less information compared to our lossless system. The system provides a low-cost alternative for monitoring animal movements, and we discuss its further applicability.

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