Animal waste treatment in Hungary
Table 1 shows the stages of processing of animal carcasses. This process has significant heat demands for sterilization in the form of saturated steam. The output of this process is
In this study, the accumulation of Sr in various bones of animal skeleton were investigated. Data on the elemental content of Sr in animal skeleton are important for the distribution of radiostrontium. Sr is chemically similar to Ca and therefore the concentrations level of Sr were calculated on a Ca weight basis in the animal skeleton.
The detection of characteristic gamma rays emitted promptly by elements after capture of neutrons is used as a means of radioanalytic analysis. Here it is shown that the method can be used for the measurement of the nitrogen (and therefore protein) content of small animals, those with mass around 3 kg.
Commission regulation Nr 37/2010 of 22 December 2009 on Pharmacologically active substances and their classification regarding maximum residue limits in foodstuffs of animal origin, Off. J. Eur. Union, L 15/1, 20.01.2010, 2010
A method for the neutron activation analysis of aluminum in animal tissue has been developed which through pre-irradiation
chemistry eliminates otherwise interfering nuclear reactions. The procedure gives a precision of ±0.1 ppm in samples of a
few hundred milligrams dry tissue containing about 1 ppm Al.Bowen’s standard kale has been analysed instrumentally and a value of 45±4 ppm Al was found. Difficulties specifically related
to the aluminum analysis of this material are discussed.
Authors:W. Kwiatek, B. Kubica, R. Gryboś, M. Krośniak, E. Dutkiewicz, and R. Hajduk
Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) were used for vanadium determination in animal tissues. The vanadium concentration levels were determined in blood, kidneys and livers taken from rats. Two groups of the animals were treated with different diets. The diet for the first group was supplemented with vanadium compounds while the diet for the second one was assumed to be a normal diet. The second group was treated as control. In order to achieve the best minimum detectable limit (MDL)1 the samples were subject to a special sample preparation procedure. Blood and kidneys were mineralized with an APDC compound. The mineralization process was performed according to the procedure described previously.2 The application of PIXE3 is very useful for different types of samples. PIXE measurements were performed with a proton beam at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow, Poland while the AAS measurements were done at the Institute of Molecular Biology, Jagiellonian University, Poland. The concentration levels of vanadium in blood and kidneys are compared and discussed. There were no significant statistical differences between results of vanadium concentration levels determined by the abovementioned techniques. The PIXE technique had the advantage over the AAS technique of giving a broad spectrum of trace elements analyzed in a single measurement. Therefore with the help of sample preparation procedure the application of the PIXE method seems to be suitable for such analyzes.
Authors:T. Wesolowski, B. Schaarschmidt, and I. Lamprecht
A simple calorimeter is described which consists of a cooling/warming box as used for picnic equipment. The volume of this calorimeter is 8 dm3, the sensitivity is 19.2 mV/W, and the time constant is 580 s. As such an instrument is designed for animals weighing some 100 g, a signal of 10 to 50 mV can be expected, which can easily be monitored with the usual laboratory recorders. The long-time baseline drift is sufficiently small when the calorimeter is placed in a wooden box with Styropore insulation. Experiments were run for 1 to 15 h with various animals, among them chinese hamsters, hedgehogs, turtles and rats. The price of the box is appr. $ 100.
The concentration of platinum in various organs of mice and rat was determined, after injection of tetrachloroplatinate and dichlorodimethioninoplatinum/II/, by neutron activation analysis. It was found that these two platinum complexes have a different biodistribution pattern in animals.
In this work the transfer behavior of long living radionuclides from the Thorium decay series (Ra-228, Th-228, Th-232) as well as of K-40 and Cs-137 is studied. In a small area of middle Europe (southeast Gemany) showing an increased Thorium content of soil the activity concentrations in samples of feed plants, farm animals, farm animal products, roe deer has been determined. The concentration ratios feed-to-animal tissue and to animal products are calculated indicating a significantly enhanced transfer from feed to roe deer tissues. Determinations of the activity concentrations in fish (carp), pig (tissues), egg, milk complete this examinations. Among all studied samples which are important for human nourishing eggs and carp cause the greatest exposure by ingestion.