This paper examines the importance of the lituus on Augustan provincial coinage. On local coins of some thirty cities in Africa and Asia, Augustus’ obverse portraits are accompanied by a lituus, the symbol of the augurs. One of Augustus’ most important priestly offices was that of an augur. Romulus’ most famous achievement as an augur was the foundation of Rome. When Augustus became an augur in 43 BC, it was particularly Romulus’ role as a founder that Augustus emulated the most. Augustus considered himself to be the second founder of Rome, and also founded, re-founded, and reorganized numerous cities in the Roman provinces. I argue, then, that given the far-reaching evidence of the lituus on Augustan provincial coinage, the prominence of Augustus’ position as an augur is not only evident through his provincial (re)foundations, but also through his visual imagery.
During the Roman Empire, when an autonomous Etruscan culture had disappeared long ago, aspects of the old Etruscan religion were still surviving and had been integrated in the Roman traditional religion: the haruspices, acting as diviners for public or private purposes all over the Roman empire, could interpret prodigies, what Roman priests and even augurs did not. When, with the Christians, a new religion arrived which risked to overthrow the old national religion of the Romans, Etruscan religious tradition played an important role against the rise of Christianity: with the sacred books of the Etruscans, with the prophets who were alleged to have created the Etruscan religious tradition, the Romans could find in their own heritage what could match the Bible of the Christians or their prophets. Unsurprisingly, haruspices were active in the resistance movement against the new religion.
This study broadly considers textual and extra-textual factors involved in producing and disseminating Spanish translations, dimensions that may be linguistic, socio-linguistic, cognitive, economic, cultural, or legal. Sociolect and regionalect are considered in the translation traffic into Spanish, particularly in their relations to aesthetic verisimilitude or market acceptability. The phenomenon of what has been called textual mobility is traced. According to De Clercq et al. (2006), textual mobility may include translation policy, translator-publisher negotiations, printing industry conditions, copyright considerations, and other power matrices, including censorship and patronage. Censorship’s historical effects on translation policy are borne out in light of translational contraband and distribution. Variants of Spanish are shown to be involved in dynamics of writing from the margins, perceptions of language correctness, including the hybridity and its implications for identity, and the attendant issues of power. The special problem of interregional insularity is tied to migrational limitations. Finally, the Spanish-speaking world’s hierarchies, asymmetries, and inter- or intraliterary commerce practices past and present are broadly examined (including multinational publishing houses and editorial coproductions), alongside the advent of Spanish-language publishing in the United States and what this might augur for literarily localized or globalized Spanish translations.