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What is ἀργός? Whiteness? Luminosity? Or, simply a range of bright shades? Having undertaken an on-going research project on the perception of colour-sense in antiquity that explores colour’s metaphorical function(s) and its social role, in this paper I shed light on bright shades in the Iliad, mainly ἀργός, and examine their contexts to investigate how the poet employs ἀργός in developing a richer narrative, including character portrayal. How are various appearances of ἀργός composed and interconnected? How do they metaphorically affect their contexts? What do they symbolise within the narrative? Through detailed analysis, I show that ἀργός, being appropriately selected to contribute to each context as a significant indicator, plays an important role in brightening the context, effectively and picturesquely.

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Bright, R.: Travels from Vienna through Lower Hungary; with some remarks on the state of Vienna during the Congress, in the Year 1814. Archibald Constable and Company, Edinburgh, 1818

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Introduction Classic psychedelics provide unique effects on human subjective experience ( Bright & Williams, 2018 ) by affecting the serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) system, primarily as 5-HT 2A receptor agonists ( Forstmann & Sagioglou

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aqueous solutions. The bright and transparent crystals obtained were characterized. The TG and DTA studies confirm a two-stage decomposition of the compound when heated between 180 and 750 °C. The FTIR spectra show characteristic vibrational frequencies of

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: S. Hu, H. Shu, J.L. Yuan, J.Y. Gao, P.Y. Mu, C.Z. Ren, W. Sang, L.C. Guo, and H.B. Chen

–1.88±0.23 c 14.42±0.17 cd 13.50 c Wheat-oat 9.00 60.90±0.31 a –3.10±0.17 d 13.71±0.15 ab 12.26 bc Pure wheat flour 62.94±0.56 c –4.34±0.21 e 14.09±0.19 abd 11.42 b L : brightness; a : (+) redness, (–) greenness; b : (+) yellowness, (–) blueness; ΔE

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: E. Kovács, P. Merész, Z. Kristóf, and E. Németh-Szerdahelyi

Colour, texture, pectin autolysis, membrane permeability and microstructure (SEM, TEM), β-galactosidase and polygalacturonase were studied in apricots (cv. Magyar kajszi) harvested in mature green, straw yellow, bright orange and deep orange stages. The L* increased from mature green to straw yellow then decreased from straw yellow to deep orange state. The a* values increased with ripening. The bright and deep orange apricots were significantly softer than the mature green and straw yellow ones and the membrane permeability increased with ripening. The presence of β-galactosidase enzyme was proved by immunoblotting analysis using monoclonal anti-β-galactosidase clone GAL-13 (Sigma) in all ripening stages. The enzyme activity was very low in mature green stage and increased significantly (P>95%) with increasing ripeness and during storage. The PG activity was very low in the mature green apricot. A significant (P>95%) increase was observed in the straw yellow apricot and in the riper fruits. The mature green apricot showed a regular, the straw yellow and bright orange samples showed a moderately regular tissue structure, while the tissue of the deep orange apricot collapsed (SEM). The cell wall and the middle lamella of the green apricot (TEM) were intact. Generally, there were intact cytoplasm membranes with some damaged parts. In the straw yellow apricot, the cell wall started to loosen, the middle lamella lost pectic polysaccharides. The structure of the cytoplasm was not recognisable, the tonoplast and the cytoplasm membrane were injured. The cell wall of the bright orange apricot was similar to that of the straw yellow ones. The middle lamella dissolved and hairy, fibrillar structure of cell wall was found in the deep orange samples.

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Abstract

Chronic diffuse liver diseases (CDLD) produce the characteristic ultrasound (US) image of bright liver. On the basis of liver attenuation, two major appearances are seen, the low and the high attenuation types. It was proved previously that high attenuation is associated with fatty liver, and subcutaneous fat thickness (SCF) correlates with the attenuation. The cut-off value of attenuation and SCF was searched for the differentiation of the two attenuation types and that of the normal livers. Four hundred and forty-one cases (proved by histology) were examined by US. Of these, 132 normal livers, 176 low attenuation type, and 133 high attenuation type bright livers were found. The cut-off level of attenuation, determined by frequency distribution analysis, was defined as 1.1 dB/cm/MHz, between fatty liver and low attenuation type bright liver and normal liver. The cut-off value for SCF could not be determined. It is concluded that, above the cut-off point of attenuation, the diagnosis of fatty liver can be established without liver biopsy. SCF values give additional comfirmational data.

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Ultrahangvizsgálattal a krónikus diffúz májbetegségekre jellemző fényes máj két típusa különíthető el a csillapítás alapján, az alacsony és a magas csillapítású típus. Előzőleg bebizonyosodott, hogy a magas csillapítás – amelyet a zsírmáj okoz – korrelációt mutat a bőr alatti zsírszövet vastagságával. A csillapítás és a bőr alatti zsírszövetvastagság „cut-off” értékét kerestük a fényes máj két csillapítástípusa, valamint a kóros és egészséges máj elkülönítésére. 441 (szövettannal igazolt) beteget vizsgáltunk ultrahanggal. 132 normális májat, 176 alacsony és 133 magas csillapítású fényes májat találtunk. A gyakoriságeloszlás analízisével a zsírmáj és az alacsony csillapítású, illetve az egészséges máj között „cut-off”-érték, 1,1 dB/cm/MHz, definiálható. A bőr alatti zsírszövetvastagság esetében „cut-off”-értéket megállapítani nem lehetett, de 2,5 cm feletti érték csak zsírmáj mellett fordult elő. Az eredményekből azt a következtetést vonhatjuk le, hogy a csillapítás „cut-off” értéke használatával a zsírmáj májbiopszia nélkül is megbízhatóan kórismézhető. A bőr alatti zsírszövetvastagság a kórismét megerősítő kiegészítő adatot szolgáltat.

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Abstract  

A single crystal of urea–thiourea was grown by slow evaporation of aqueous solution at room temperature. The bright and transparent crystals obtained were characterised by TG–DTA, UV and FTIR spectral analyses. A fitting decomposition pattern for the title compound was formulated on the TG curve which shows a two stage mass loss between 200 and 750 °C. DTA curve shows exothermic peaks supporting the formulated decomposition pattern in this temperature range. The UV and FTIR spectra show the characteristic absorption, vibration frequencies due to urea–thiourea zinc chloride crystals. Detailed structural analysis of the compound is under progress.

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Abstract  

The novel two-step synthesis method decreasing the calcining temperature necessary for formation of spinel lattice and as well for reaching of bright and clear hue of the pigments prepared were investigated. This work aims to utilization of DTA for synthesis monitoring. Influence of raw materials and temperature of calcination on color properties were observed. The characterization of the samples was performed by X-ray diffraction and colorimetry in the CIE L*a*b* system. It was proved that the black spinel pigment Cu2.3Mn2.8Cr4.9Ox can be prepared at finally temperature 700C as one-phase system with high quality black hue.

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