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Abstract

We show that human subjects are sensitive to the influence of both the risks associated with investments and the influence of relatedness when deciding whether or not to invest in relatives. However, there were significant differences between subjects, with some preferring to emphasise risk while others preferred to emphasise kinship. Subjects who were better at assessing probabilities were more likely to identify risky investments, while those who were better at handling conjoint probabilities were more likely to take both kinship and risk into account.

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Abstract

Verbal and non-verbal vocal cues of co-operation and competition were assessed in 120 freely-formed dyadic conversations. In line with previous research, female/female dyads were found to be the most cooperative. However, in female/female conversations, cooperation decreased, and non-verbal competition increased, when males were present. Male/male conversation did not exhibit significant changes in style when a female audience was present. Mixed-sex conversations showed evidence of compromise between the two conversational styles; however, females were still significantly more cooperative in conversational style than males, and males exhibited higher levels of verbal competitiveness than females.

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Abstract

Although Duchenne smiles have been shown to have a social signal value, there is limited evidence as to whether this effect generalises to most positive attributes, or whether it is restricted to a particular social domain. As opposed to non-Duchenne smiles, Duchenne smiles involve the activity of facial muscles in the eye region (orbicularis oculi). The hypothesis that Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles produce different responses in receivers was tested in a face perception experiment. People were asked to rate neutral and smiling faces on ten attributes: attractiveness, generosity, trustworthiness, competitiveness, health, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extroversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience. Results showed that the type of smile had a stronger impact on the ratings of generosity and extroversion. The difference between neutral and smiling was larger when faces showed a Duchenne than a non-Duchenne smile, though the effect of smile type on attributions of generosity appeared to be restricted to male faces. Therefore the Duchenne marker shows some specificity to judgements of altruism and sociability.

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Abstract

Prehistoric stone tool knapping was an expert skill. This experiment was a cognitively demanding test of modern day knappers using an adaptation of the classic Chase and Simon paradigm from chess expertise (where chess experts/novices are briefly exposed to chess positions and later asked to recall the patterns). Here, pieces of flint debitage were used instead of chess pieces, and it was a recognition test rather than recall. Expertise was measured by social status and questionnaire. Three participant groups were tested (archaeology professionals, students, and nonexperts) in 15 trials each, each comprising four tasks: (1) sorting task, (2) exposure, (3) sorting task, and (4) recognition task. The sorting task (interference) required participants to sort flint debitage by size into different buckets. In the exposure task, the experimenter showed the participant three types of rock (flakes, miscellaneous rocks, cores) seriatim for 2 seconds each. The recognition task required that the participant attempt to identify previously seen rocks on three tables (flakes, miscellaneous, and cores tables). Experts performed significantly better than students and non-experts. Post-session interviews revealed a diversity of strategies, suggesting that increased expertise enhanced perception. This result parallels chess expert studies, and template theory in chess might apply to knappers.

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Abstract

Biology and the social sciences parted company at a time when evolution itself was poorly understood. As a result, the social sciences left with a rather impoverished view of evolution, and therefore failed to take note of the developments that emerged later. Among these have been an appreciation of Tinbergen's “Four Whys”, Hamilton's broadening of the concept of fitness into what he termed “neighbour modulated fitnesses” and multi-level selection (as distinct from group selection). I argue that a better appreciation of some of these developments might go some way towards facilitating a rapprochement between the social and evolutionary sciences.

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Pszichológiai iskolák napjainkban — A tranzakcióanalízis (TA) képessége a megújulásra

Contemporary schools of psychology — The life strategy of transactional analysis (TA)

Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors:
Katalin Járó
and
Sándor Antal

A tanulmány a tranzakcióanalízis szemszögéből abba a tágabb kérdéskörbe világít be, milyen az esélye a gyakorlatban születő elméleteknek és módszereknek arra, hogy a korszerű pszichológiai tudomány továbbra is önálló irányzatként számoljon velük. Az iskola olyan szellemi és szakmai tartalékai vannak a fókuszban, amelyek biztosítják számára, hogy rendre megküzdjön az új idők társadalmi és professzionális kihívásaival és megőrizve sajátszerűségét, képes legyen megújulni. Kitüntetetten foglalkozunk a krízis- és problémakezelési technikák feltérképezésével, az új kihívások fogadási stratégiáinak bemutatásával egyrészt az iskolában az ezredfordulón lezajlott krízis kreatív meghaladásának tapasztalatai, valamint az alapító, Eric Berne születésének 100. évfordulójához kapcsolódó számvetés alapján. A tanulmány számba veszi a szakmai közösség identitásépítésének, az optimista jövőképek kimunkálásának fontos szerepét. Végül bemutatja, hogy kiérlelt megküzdési stratégiáinak birtokában a TA hogyan határozza meg jelenlegi feladatait, mit tesz, hogy erősítse elfogadottságát.

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del Congreso sobre el mundo centroamericano de su tiempo [V centenary of Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo: Report of the Congress on the Central American world of his time] (pp. 133 – 138 ). San José, Costa Rica : Editorial Texto Ltd

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