Authors:Z. Idiri, M. Siad, B. Kaddari, L. Omari, M. Seghir and A. Zerrouki
Simultaneous determination of N, Mg, Al, Si, P, Cl, K, Ca and Fe in chicken dung and dates was carried out using fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA) with a SAMES J25 neutron generator. The activities were measured with a 72 cm3 high purity germanium detector using the relative method. The accuracy was checked with the aid of a standard reference material of milk powder A11 supplied by the IAEA. For the nitrogen contents, the results were compared to those obtained by the classical KJELDAHL method.
Authors:M. I. Oshtrakh, O. B. Milder, V. A. Semionkin, L. I. Malakheeva and P. G. Prokopenko
Characterization of iron storage proteins in liver and spleen from normal chicken and chicken with lymphoid leukemia in comparison
with human liver ferritin were considered by Mössbauer spectroscopy (preliminary results). Small differences in Mössbauer
hyperfine parameters for both normal and lymphoid leukemia chicken liver and spleen were observed. The value of quadrupole
splitting for human liver ferritin was higher than those for chicken tissues. A decrease of iron content in lymphoid leukemia
chicken tissues was also found, however, the reason of this fact (pathology or feeding) was not clear yet.
Authors:R. Ozao, T. Okabe, T. Arii, Y. Nishimoto, Y. Cao, N. Whitely and W.-P. Pan
Summary An odorless woodceramics (CH800), which was prepared by carbonizing chicken wastes with phenolic resin, was characterized by XRD and thermal analysis. CH800 was found to consist mainly of amorphous carbon (non-graphitizing carbon) as studied by XRD. Differing from carbonized chicken waste, CH800 was completely free of unfavorable smell. The source of strong smell of carbonized chicken waste was studied by using TG-DTA combined with EGA technique using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (TG-DTA/GC-MS). As a result, it was found that CH800 was completely free of compounds having strong smell, i.e., ethanol, acetonitrile, pyridine, styrene, benzonitrile and benzofuran, whereas carbonized chicken waste contained all of these compounds.
Authors:Petra Jazbec, Andrej Šmidovnik, Mateja Puklavec, Mitja Križman, Jernej Šribar, Luka Milivojević and Mirko Prošek
Coenzyme Q10, an essential factor of oxidative phosphorylation and an important antioxidant, is used as food additive in industrial production of poultry meat. In this study chickens were fed with water-soluble coenzyme Q10-β-cyclodextrin complex for 40 days and the distribution of CoQ10 and cholesterol in the chicken-breast cells was then measured. Cell fractions were analyzed by HPTLC and results were confirmed with a new HPLC-MS method. Both methods are suitable for quantitative evaluation, but HPTLC is particularly suitable for screening purposes. Validation revealed HPTLC is a reliable, sensitive, and flexible analytical tool in comparison with HPLC-MS, despite its inherently lower sensitivity and selectivity.
EuCl3 was applied intravenously /1 mg kg–1 body weight/ to chicken. Tissue samples of chicken /blood, liver, spleen, fat, pancreas, kidney, lung, breast muscle, brain, femur, testes/ were analyzed for europium concentration. High europium concentrations were found in liver /54.08 ppm/, in spleen /16.44 ppm/ after 24 h and femur /3.28 ppm/ 7 d after application. This experiment shows that accumulation of europium occurs in the yolk of eggs after application of EuCl3 to egg-laying hens /1 mg kg–1 body weight/ during 37 d.
Authors:S. Atta, A. Sattar, A. Ahmad, I. Ali, S.A. Nagra and T. Ahmad
Chicken and fish have been investigated for the detection of radiation treatment using thermoluminescence (TL) technique. The samples were irradiated by 60Co gamma-source at the absorbed doses of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kGy. TL response of treated and untreated samples in the temperature range of 50–300 °C was measured using TL reader with a temperature profile of 10 °C/s. The results revealed that TL values increased with temperature and maximum signal were obtained at 195 °C, in each case. It was also observed that the TL intensities enhanced with the absorbed doses (1–5 kGy) and the increase was dependent on the absorbed dose. From this study it is concluded that the TL technique is a rapid, simple and promising method for identifying chicken and fish treated with gamma-irradiation.
Tissues samples of chicken /blood, liver, spleen, fat, pancreas, kidney, lung, breast muscle, brain, femur, faeces, egg yolk, white of egg/, were analyzed for scandium concentration. ScCl3 was applied intravenously /1 mg kg–1 body weight/. High scandium concentrations were found in the liver /34. 35 ppm/, spleen /15.46 ppm/, and lung /15.52 ppm/ three days after application. This experiment shows that accumulation of scandium occurs in the yolk of egg but not in the white of the egg.
Ionizing radiation was used for the purpose of reducing bacterial contamination in mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM).
Irradiated and non-irradiated MDCM stored at -18±1 °C, and samples were taken at zero time and at 30-day intervals up to 90
days for 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, sensory and microbiological analyses. The results obtained for the microbiological,
sensory and lipid oxidation evaluations, showed that the MDCM samples irradiated with doses of 3.0 and 4.0 kGy were all considered
acceptable during 90 days of frozen storage.
Authors:L. Peng, L. Yi, H. Jia, D. Fengjiao, P. Daiwen and Q. Songsheng
A microcalorimetric technique was used to evaluate the influence of La3+ on mitochondria isolated from the liver tissue of Avian chicken. By means of LKB-2277 bioactivity monitor, ampoule method
at 37C, we obtained the thermogenic curves of the metabolism of mitochondria. After isolation from the chicken liver tissue,
mitochondria still have metabolic activity and can live for a long time depending on the stored nutrients. In order to analyze
the results, the maximum power (Pm) and the decline rate constants (kd) were obtained. The addition of La3+ results in an increase of the maximum heat production and decline rate constants. Furthermore, values of Pm and kd are linked to the concentration of La3+. According to the thermogenic curves under different conditions, it is clear that metabolic mechanism of mitochondria has
been changed with the addition of La3+.
The lipid profiles of brain from 10- and 18-day-old chick embryo, 1-day-old chick, and adult chicken as well as of full-term fetus rat, 21-day-old male, young adult male, and pregnant female rats were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and densitometry. The emphasis was on the major glycolipids of brain during myelination (i.e., galactocyl diglyceride (GDG) normal fatty acid and hydroxyl fatty acid ceramide monohexosides (n-CMH, h-CMH, respectively)), and sulfatides (S) as well as the choline lipids sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidyl choline (PC) and the two species of phosphatidyl ethanolamine plasmalogen (PE1 and PE2).Ten-day-old chick embryo brain revealed a low concentration of glycolipids, which increased gradually during development, and reached the highest level in the adult chicken brain. Rat brain did not begin to show the presence of these glycolipids until 21 days old. In addition, PE (i.e., PE1 and PE2) was shown to be the only alkenyle phospholipid in all samples analyzed. PE2 was shown to correlate with the myelination process. PC and SM were also present. SM concentration was very low in 1-day-old chick and 21-day-old rat brains and increased gradually, reaching its highest level in the adult chicken and rat brains.