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Remarkable differences have been found in host-plant related chemical communication between Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze and Ph. vittula Redtenbacher (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). In preliminary screenings sizeable catches of Ph. vittula were recorded in traps baited with either 3-butenyl isothiocyanate, or a quternary mixture of 2-butenyl-, phenethyl-, 3-butenyl-and butyl isothiocyanates. Later studies revealed that Ph. vittula responded better to the above isothiocyanate mixture, than to allyl isothiocyanate, while Ph. cruciferae catches were always greater in allyl isothiocyanate baited traps. Of the four isothiocyanates in the mixture, 3-butenyl isothiocyanate may predominantly be responsible for attractivity of the mixture towards Ph. vittula .As such differences in isothiocyanate preference may occur also in other flea beetle species, for practical applications more efficient, selective and sensitive baits and traps may be developed in the future based on improved knowledge of the chemical communication of flea beetles and through optimal combination of effective isothiocyanate compounds. Both Ph. cruciferae and Ph. vittula rank among the most important pest flea beetles in Europe.

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Authors: Zsolt Spitzmüller, Márton Hajdú, István Pócsi and Tamás Emri

Relative transcriptions of Aspergillus nidulans dug1-3 (orthologes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DUG — deficient in utilization of glutathione — pathway genes) and ggtA encoding γ-glutamyl transpeptidase were studied under conditions inducing glutathione degradation. GgtA was induced in all cases when glutathione levels decreased, but addition of yeast extract, which moderated glutathione degradation, enhanced its induction. Although dug2 showed constitutive transcription, dug1 and dug3 were induced by carbon and nitrogen starvation and yeast extract did not caused significant changes in their relative transcription. The in silico reconstructed DUG pathway of A. nidulans is a promising candidate for cytosolic GSH degradation induced by carbon/nitrogen stress.

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Using NMR spectroscopy benzene derivatives were detected in mycelia of Fusarium graminearum, a pathogen of wheat and maize. In previous studies F. graminearum was found to cause cancer to humans and benzene derivatives were detected in breath of cancer sufferers. Surprisingly, no study found benzene derivatives to be the cancerous agents in F. graminearum. In this study we detected benzene derivatives in F. graminearum and propose to study their role as cancer agents.

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Invertebrate microglia constitute a class of cells resident in the ganglionic nervous system which are activated after tissue injury or by the presence of pathogens. The microglia activation response includes graduated morpho-functional and biochemical changes and cell proliferation. In this study we verified in the freshwater snail Planorbarius corneus that an activation caused by a traumatic event may induce microglia division. Cell proliferation was assessed immunocytochemically using BrdU incorporation technique and documented on both ganglionic sections and microglia cultured cells at different experimental conditions and times after activation. In addition, we studied the possibility of increasing microglia proliferation by adding to the cultured medium the Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) that has been shown to stimulate specifically this process in vertebrates.

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We compared the performance of an in-house and a commercial malaria polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using freeze–thawed hemolytic blood samples.

A total of 116 freeze–thawed ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood samples of patients with suspicion of malaria were analyzed by an in-house as well as by a commercially available real-time PCR.

Concordant malaria negative PCR results were reported for 39 samples and malaria-positive PCR results for 67 samples. The inhouse assay further detected one case of Plasmodium falciparum infection, which was negative in the commercial assay as well as five cases of P. falciparum malaria and three cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria, which showed sample inhibition in the commercial assay. The commercial malaria assay was positive in spite of a negative in-house PCR result in one case. In all concordant results, cycle threshold values of P. falciparum-positive samples were lower in the commercial PCR than in the in-house assay.

Although Ct values of the commercial PCR kit suggest higher sensitivity in case of concordant results, it is prone to inhibition if it is applied to hemolytic freeze–thawed blood samples. The number of misidentifications was, however, identical for both real-time PCR assays.

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Molecular characterization of proliferating carnation plant tissues revealed association with a pararetroviroid-like agent. Carnation small virod-like RNA termed as CarSV RNA is unique among plant viroidlike RNA s by having a homologous DNA counterpart in the plant genome. Previously, CarSV DNA related sequences had been detected in the plant genome fused to microsatellite-like genomic sequences. Here we present data that tissue proliferation symptoms can be seen only on those plants that are expressing the RNA form of this agent. As CarSV RNA adopts a hammerhead structure in both polarities and the plant genome naturally encodes a functional hammerhead ribozyme, it can be concluded that these ribozyme sequences are cleaved out from the plant genome. This could lead to the evolution of small RNA s that replicate autonomously by the rolling circle mechanism and later could spread horizontally by vegetative propagation of the plant material, or by using a hitchhiked plant pararetrovirus fused to its genome.

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In recent years, Aleuroclava psidii (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) has been extending its geographic range due to the international movement of plant material. In October 2013, it was discovered on Psidium sp. (Myrtaceae) in Egypt and represents the first record of this species in Egypt and the Western Palearctic region.

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; hence, meeting each other during a hunt or while scavenging a carcass was common. Ancient wolves with genetically predisposed friendly behavior and modern humans are supposed to have started interspecific prosocial communication, first in all likelihood

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Communication . University of Illinois Press , Urbana, IL . Simboura , N. and A. Zenetos . 2002 . Benthic indicators to use in ecological quality classification of Mediterranean soft

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such as monocytes to keep the bacterial population in check, and these cells communicate with each other, with deeper tissue, and with the bacteria that are present; this communication takes place at a molecular level via chemical signals. One of the

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