Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for :

  • "county seat" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

The study analyses the topography and the burial customs of the 11th–13th century graves excavated at Cluj-Mănăştur (Kolozsmonostor), together with their relationship to the settlement- and stone building remains of the site. It concludes how and how long could coexist from the 11th century onwards a county seat and a monastery surrounded by the same ramparts.

Restricted access

According to the evidence of linguistics, the Hungarians brought the knowledge of beekeeping with them to the Carpathian Basin. Beekeeping and the consumption of honey must have been a common practice in Csongrád (historically the county seat in the early Middle Ages), a settlement surrounded by water, as records show that in 1138 the people here were required to pay a tax in márc (mead). In Turkish times, mid-16th-century defters (taxation lists) provide evidence of beekeeping during that period. After the Turks were driven out of Hungary, a record dating from 1731 shows that as part of his economic organising activity the Hungarian landowner Sándor Károlyi wanted to make beekeeping a taxable activity. Notitia , an 18th-century description by Mátyás Bél (minister of religion, teacher, historian), and the survey ordered in the time of Joseph II record the endowments for beekeeping (extensive natural stretches of water and melliferous wildflowers) as well as the man-made conditions (cultivated melliferous plants such as tobacco, grapevines, fruit trees). 19th-century sources also confirm the existence of local beekeeping. Material collected orally in 2004 shows that folk and peasant beekeeping was practised at several places in the area in the late 19th and the 20th centuries. In addition to establishing the locations, in a few places the researchers also obtained a description of the place occupied by beekeeping in the peasant economy. The oral data record the traces of beekeeping in live trees and of harvesting honey in the wild, the process of transition from skep to box hive in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the various types of hives, the method of making mead and the occasions on which honey was eaten.

Restricted access

A szennyvíz alapú epidemiológia jelentősége a COVID–19 járványban és azon túl

The importance of wastewater-based epidemiology in the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond

Scientia et Securitas
Authors: Tamás Pándics, Eszter Róka, Bernadett Khayer, Zoltán Kis, Luca Bella Kovács, Nóra Magyar, Tibor Málnási, Orsolya Oravecz, Bernadett Pályi, Eszter Schuler, and Márta Vargha

Összefoglaló. A szennyvízalapú epidemiológia módszere a jelenlegi világjárványban egyre inkább előtérbe kerül. Mivel a szennyvízhálózatot szinte mindenki használja, ezzel a módszerrel gyorsan és olcsón lehet reprezentatív egészségügyi információhoz jutni, az így keletkező adatok pedig támogatást és visszajelzést nyújthatnak a döntéshozatalban. A Nemzeti Népegészségügyi Központ 2020 júniusa óta működteti a COVID–19 előrejelző rendszert. A mintavételek hetente történnek Budapest három szennyvíztisztítójából, valamint a megyeszékhelyekről. A kapott adatok hazánkban is előrejelzik az esetszám alakulását, az eredmények gyors kommunikációja pedig lehetővé teszi a járványhelyzetre történő felkészülést. A szennyvízalapú epidemiológia alkalmazása a jövőben más területeken is megfontolandó hazánkban is.

Summary. Wastewater based epidemiology (WBE) is an emerging method in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Since almost everyone uses the sewerage system, wastewater is technically a composite sample representing the entire population of the area serviced by a wastewater plant. This community sample contains pathogens and compounds excreted by the human body through feces or urine, and can be used to obtain information on the health status of the community. It was successfully used previously for confirming the eradication of poliovirus and tracking legal and illegal drug consumption.

The etiological agent of COVID-19, the SARS-CoV-2 virus is an enveloped, single strand RNA coronavirus. Although it is a respiratory virus, it is also shed in feces both in symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. Wastewater therefore can be used to estimate outbreak trends and support outbreak management.

Wastewater monitoring efforts in Hungary started in June 2020, first in Budapest, then gradually extended to a national surveillance system. Weekly samples are collected in the three wastewater treatment plants servicing Budapest, and from every county seat. The analyzed 22 samples represent approximately 40 % of the population. Raw sewage samples are centrifuged to remove the debris and concentrated by membrane ultrafiltration. RNA is extracted from the concentrate and SARS-CoV-2 is quantified by RT-qPCR. Results are normalized to Enterococcus counts to correct for the bias of dilution from precipitation.

The first results in June reflected the decline of the first wave of the outbreak. During the summer, viral RNA concentrations were low, mainly below the limit of detection. The increase of RNA in the sewage preceded the resurge of cases by 2 weeks. Trends of viral concentration followed the same pattern as the number of infections in the second and third wave. SARS-CoV in sewage shows statistically significant association with the number of new cases in the following weeks, thus it can be used as an early warning system.

Results are communicated weekly to the governance board responsible for outbreak management, or more frequently in case of outstanding results or when it is necessary for decision support. Weekly information is also made available to the public. To inform the public, concentration categories (low, medium, elevated and high) were defined, representing orders of magnitude of the viral RNA concentration. Trends (increasing, stagnating or decreasing) are also indicated.

The establishment of a long-term wastewater surveillance system would provide an opportunity for early recognition of future emerging infections, tracking seasonal influenza, drug use or even the detection of certain bioterror attacks. It would be an important addition to maintaining the health and safety of the Hungarian population.

Open access

respondents reflects the overall population, with 223 men (44.6%) and 277 (55.4%) women. Most respondents live in the county seat (45.2%). In terms of subjective income status, the majority of respondents said they were in the higher income category (37

Open access

them are female. The mean age of the sample is 16.44 years ( SD  = 1,122). About 12.6% of the participants live in Budapest, 25.6% of them live in county seats, 10.1% of them in other big cities, 28.3% of them in small cities, 22.5% of them in villages

Open access

the age of 14 by clusters and find significant differences ( Table 3 ). Table 3. Place of permanent residence at the age of 14 by clusters of motives behind further studies (%) a County seat or capital Small town Village Total Capital increasing 31% 34

Open access

variable to a 3-category variable: village, small town and big town. Fourty three percentageof the respondents live in the county seat and in the capital, 40% in small town and 17% in village. We have measured the supply of cultural capital in several ways

Open access

Social Change, Dress and Identity

Observations on the Disintegration of Peasant Culture as Exemplified by Rural Women’s Clothing in Hungary from the First World War to the End of the Kádár Era Socialism

Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Author: Ágnes Fülemile

) Figure 27 Consecration of a cross in the vineyards on a Sunday afternoon. Sióagárd (Tolna county) 1987. (Photo: Ágnes Fülemile) Figure 28 Women from Bogyiszló selling their goods at the weekly market of the county seat, Szekszárd, 1987. (Tolna

Open access

of fitness consumers are largely influenced by the location of the facility within the town. The present research was not carried out in Budapest (the capital), but in Debrecen (the second largest town, a county seat), where shorter distances within

Open access

(the recorder with 2772 workers was at this time the Matyó co-operative) ( Kerekes 2014 :465–467). The Folk Arts and Cottage Industry Company operated business premises at 5 locations in Budapest alone and at 13 county seats in the year of 1953 (as well

Open access