It is shown that characterizing the creative activity by the aha! concept the creative processes can be described as singular points of a smooth surface. The cusp catastrophe from the theory of RenéThom is used to describe and to estimate quantitatively the creative process. The behaviour parameter is the flux of empirical laws and the control parameters are the experimental and the theoretical effort. The theoretical effort is the bifurcation parameter.
In this paper, international team research (ITR) is discussed as an object for measurement, systems analysis, and management. The paper is intended as a contribution to the development of a problem orientation in scientometrics. In the authors' view, scientometric studies can help solve the problem of efficient ITR in several ways-for instance, by identifying needed improvements in (a) international scientific communication in general, (b) scientific interactions within and among research teams as part of the creative process, and (c) the overall international usage of existing scientific knowledge. The paper discusses the machinery of ITR, models of scientific communication, and some original experience in using computers and telecommunications as tools for scientific interaction. All of these are potential objects for scientometric investigation. The paper itself performs some first steps in obtaining economic parameters for the different forms of international team research.