Authors:S. Shibata, E. Kawano, K. Kimura, T. Mine, and M. Harada
14C dating of 6 Japan cedars having the relative growing ages were made. On the basis of correlation analysis of our data to
a14C age data set, INTCAL of CALIB (Stuiver), the growing ages of these Japan cedars were estimated (BC 1090-2375). The atmospheric14C concentration (Δ14C) at their growing ages were obtained from the14C age data. The variation of Δ14C shows basically the same pattern with that of Europe or America (r=0.783).
The first part of the paper deals with the literary genre of chronica in late Antiquity and its basic characteristics, paying special attention to the chronological aspects in these works. In the second part the author Iohannes Biclarensis is introduced. He lived in the 6th and 7th century in the Visigothic kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula and his only surviving work, the Chronica, is a one-of-a-kind source for the turbulent reigns of Leovigild and Reccared at the end of the 6th century AD. In the third part I focus on the significance of chronology in this opus, I present an analysis of all the dating formulas he uses and in the conclusion I demonstrate on some examples the shift in Iohannes’ perspective through the chronicle.
Authors:C.N. Grant, G.C. Lalor, M.K. Vutchkov, and M. Balcazar
Soil gas measurements of radon were made in St. Elizabeth, Jamaica using nuclear track etch detectors. The results were compared to gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements made in the laboratory on soil samples collected at the radon measurement sites. An assessment of the degree of disequilibrium of uranium and thorium was also made by comparison with neutron activation analysis, delayed neutron counting and equivalent uranium and thorium measurements. The results to date for equivalent uranium and radon show a strong correlation and indicate the possibility of soil radon mapping in Jamaica using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Three anomalous sites have been identified.
The boat imprint unearthed at the site of the Benedictine abbey from Bizere (Frumuşeni, Romania) is a unique discovery for two reasons: its preservation as a negative imprint, due to its reuse for preparing mortar, and its dating back to the 12th century, based on the context of its discovery. It has been identified as a logboat, due to the absence of any technical details specific for plank boats, and now stands as the only vessel of this type with known dating for the territory of Romania. The article also enquires into the wider historical context of the discovery, thus bringing forth the archival data available with regard to medieval inland navigation.
Authors:S. O. Bakare, M. G. M. Kolo, and J. A. Oladiran
There was a significant interaction effect between the variety and the sowing date for the number of productive tillers, indicating that the response to sowing date varied with the variety. A significant reduction in the number of productive tillers became evident when sowing was delayed till 26 June in the straggling variety as compared to sowing dates in May. Lower numbers of productive tillers were also recorded when the sowing of the erect variety was further delayed till 10 July. The grain yield data showed that it is not advisable to sow the straggling variety later than 12 June, while sowing may continue till about 26 June for the erect variety in the study area.
The aim of this study was to investigate differences between the progesterone profiles of Beagle bitches with (multiparous) and without (nulliparous) the whelping experience and to examine whether the selection of bitches by progesterone analyses before the programmed mating improved the whelping rates. In the first experiment, the progesterone profiles of nulliparous and multiparous bitches were evaluated from Days 1 to 13 (onset of prooestrus = Day 0). The mean duration of the elevation in progesterone levels (> 2 ng/mL) after the onset of prooestrus tended to be approximately 1 day shorter in nulliparous bitches (7.7 days) than in multiparous bitches (8.5 days). In the second experiment, progesterone analyses in the bitches were carried out once on Days 4, 5 or 6. Bitches with progesterone levels of > 10 ng/mL were excluded from mating because it was unclear when the progesterone levels reached > 10 ng/mL considering the optimal date for mating. No significant differences were observed in the percentages of bitches excluded from mating and in the whelping rates of the mated bitches between the groups, irrespective of the day of progesterone analysis and the type of bitch. In conclusion, the initial elevation of progesterone levels was of shorter duration in nulliparous bitches. The selection of bitches by the measurement of progesterone levels once before mating was not effective for the programmed mating.
The last decade of the eighteenth century was a transitional period in the political as well as the cultural history of Europe. Aesthetic values underwent far-reaching changes everywhere: the field of keyboard music and keyboard performance was no exception. In Vienna, the once legendary performances of W.A. Mozart already seemed out of date for some musicians before the turn of the century. ‘Pearly’ playing gave way to singing legato style, and the occasional use of damper pedals. Of course, the appearance of the young Beethoven made a profound effect on the Viennese piano scene. He competed with four pianists on the keyboard (Gelinek, Wölfl, Steibelt, Vogler) in the course of his first ten years in Vienna: through the contemporary descriptions of these events we can learn a great deal about the current styles of piano playing. The keyboard works of the pianist-composers of the time varied in their style and level of craftsmanship. Textures became denser, and more demanding to play. The general style approached the tone of the early nineteenth century, Schubert’s in particular. Of the younger generation, Hummel was the first who performed on Viennese stages before the end of the century. After 1800, the significant Viennese debut of three young artists, Kalkbrenner, Czerny and Moscheles, initiated a new kind of bravura in pianism, which prepared the era of the instrumental virtuosity of the nineteenth century.
Very likely due to its modest nature, the Cosa Mithraeum has been mentioned in scholarly publications only four times – each in passing – since its discovery in 1954. This sparse attention, restricted solely to literature on Cosa, has meant that the mithraeum is well-known among those intimately familiar with the colony, but has languished in complete obscurity among Mithraic scholars for the past half century. In addition to bringing the Cosa Mithraeum to the attention of a wider audience, this article also argues for a re-evaluation of the most recent dating of the mithraeum. Recent advances in scholarship on mithraea at Ostia give ample reason to suggest that the original date for the Cosa Mithraeum might be more accurate than later interpreters have assumed. Furthermore, the ongoing excavations of Cosa's bath complex, conducted by Florida State University, Bryn Mawr College, and Tübingen University have revealed a city that was still quite active during the 2nd century CE. In light of these developments, this article is an overdue study of the Cosa Mithraeum and its role in the history of the colony.
It is a commonplace that after the release of a new monograph so-far unknown works begin to rise to the surface one after the other. In the case of Johann Lucas Kracker the first to appear were parallel research results, of which most noteworthy are PetrArijčuk's attributions based on archival sources. He discovered the fourth member of the refectory series in the Franciscan monastery of Moravská Třebová (The Feast of St Francis, 1759) and made the daring identification between the high altar picture in the hospital church of St Elizabeth in Znojmo with the Assumption of the Virgin long missing from Slavonice. On the basis of data from the Premonstratensian archives of Nova Řiše Václáv Milek offered a more exact dating for the altar pictures of the abbey: the pictures delivered in 1760 preceded by years not only Kracker's frescoes in the same church but also the similar works at Jasov. The late altar pictures from Banská Bystrica and the paintings discovered around Jasov were probably created with the participation of the workshop.
The recently discovered oil sketches associated with Kracker proved to be by a follower of Daniel Gran, Josef Stern and by Andreas Zallinger. Nor is the pair of bozzetti acquired recently by the Diözesanmuseum of Brixen by Kracker or by Paul Troger; they must be small-scale copies of Kracker's side altarpieces in Prague or of their sketches, or again, copies of the – now lost – Troger works used as their models. One of them – The Death of St Joseph – was also found in another variant in the Viennese art trade. What were put up for auction in Budapest were workshop copies of a pair of cabinet pictures in the Gallery of Eger – Adoration of the Shepherds, Adoration of the Magi, around 1764 – true to the original colours, which means that they were made after the paintings and not their engraved models.
There is less novelty in the realm of frescoes. The division of labour in the decoration of the Šaštín church of pilgrimage is gradually clarified: in addition to Joseph Chamant and Joseph Ignaz Mildorfer, Kracker's contribution can be presumed to the painted decoration of two subsidiary chapels in 1757. The shared attributon of the parish church of Japons has to be revised: the Apotheosis of St Lawrence on the ceiling is also Kracker's work dated 1767. In the former Jesuit church of Eger wall probings brought to light not only the baroque ornaments on the lateral walls of the nave but also the backdrop in the chancel described in the sources and the original painting by Kracker's workshop on the high altar adorned with statues.
Most of the posthumous portraits of Louis II, who died in the battle of Mohács in 1526, show him in armour. In some pictures he is wearing fictitious armour, but in other portraits he is clad in the armour which until 1939 was believed to had once been his, but actually had been made in 1533 for the Polish king Sigismund II Augustus and is currently kept in the Hungarian National Museum. The author of the study has examined the latter group of artworks. She describes the armours of Louis II, some only mentioned in archival sources or historical works. Some items that can certainly or presumably be attributed to him are kept in museums abroad. The first paintings in which Louis II is wearing the gilded ornamental armour were painted by István Dorffmeister in the mid-1780s. Since at that time the armour was on display in one of the gala rooms fitted out in Vienna’s Kaiserliches Zeughaus in the 1760s, the study discusses the history of the imperial armour and weapon collections and the conception of the arms exhibition in the Zeughaus at that time. After the demolition of the Zeughaus in 1856, the armour was transferred, together with the rest of the imperial collection of armours and weapons, to the war museum wing of the newly built Arsenal. The armour was presented by the Austrian catalogues of the museum as belonging to Louis II, and some items had illustrations added to them. The armour was introduced in Pest in 1876 at a historical exhibition for charitable purposes, and later in 1896 at the Millennial Exhibition. The Hungarian press also devoted articles to it, and several scholarly papers were written about the armour.
The prototypes for some of the 19th century artworks depicting Louis II in the Viennese armour – most of them local monuments preserving the memory of the battle – were István Dorffmeister’s paintings. His battle scene showing the death of Louis II appears in a sketch of an unrealized monument, dated 1846; in the picture painted on metal that adorned the monument in Mohács in the 1860s and on the bronze relief replacing it in the late 1890s. The antecedents to another group of representations must have been the 19th century Austrian and Hungarian descriptions and illustrations of the armour attributed to Louis II. The ruler wears this armour in several book illustrations and on the statue by Ferenc Vasadi on the Danubian facade of the Hungarian Parliament building.
Although these artworks presenting Louis II in Sigismund II Augustus’ armour do not satisfy the iconographic criteria of historical authenticity, they were up-to-date for their time, for instead of depicting the fictitious, often waywardly fantastic armours of earlier centuries, they presented the portrayed person in an existing armour made in his own era, that is, with a historically authentic appearance.