Authors:Abbas Al-Hdabi, Mohammed Al-Jumaili, and Huda Abdulzahra
1 Introduction Cold Asphalt Emulsion Mixtures (CAEMs) represents producing asphalt mixtures at ambient temperature using asphalt emulsion as binder. Previously, CAEMs were produced with open graded or semi-dense graded mixtures to ensure better
. Pre-emulsification, a process of preparing oil-in-water emulsion prior to be incorporated in a meat product, is a practical means to add vegetable oils into comminuted meat products. The non-meat proteins used to stabilise pre-emulsified emulsions play
Studies on functional propertiesof a protein concentrate produced from the seeds of bakul (Mimusops elengiL.; Sapotaceae) have been carried out. Solubility of the protein was minimum at pH 4.0. Water and oil holding capacities of the seed protein concentrate were 1.70 g g-1and 3.23 g g-1, respectively. Minimum foaming capacity, minimum emulsifying activity, minimum emulsion stability and maximum foam stability were found at pH 4.0. Moreover, emulsion stability of the protein concentrate was high (above 88.3%) over the pH range of 2-10.
The objectives of this study were to produce microencapsulated liquorice root extract (LRE) and determine storage stability of the product obtained. Maltodextrin (MD) and gum arabic (GA) as wall material were used to produce microencapsulated LRE by spray drying technology. Ratio of MD to GA was determined by response surface methodology. Three parameters: microencapsulation yield (MY), microencapsulation efficiency (ME), and Carr index as response were evaluated for optimization. MD emulsion was best for microencapsulation of LRE. Control emulsion was prepared without using any wall material. MD and control emulsions were stored for 6 months. Both preserved their bioactive and physical properties during storage. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA) of MD and control emulsions ranged from 8.09–9.09 and 34.59–39.02 mg GAE/g (TPC); 44.78–51.27 and 136.13–171.08 mg TEAC/g (AA), respectively, during storage. Furthermore, moisture content, water activity, solubility, wettability, Carr index, and Hausner ratio of samples were found to vary between 1.54–3.12%, 0.16–0.32, 93.54–99.22%, 180–240 sec, 22.5–35.63, and 1.29–1.56, respectively, during storage. This study provides direct comparative data on properties of LRE powders produced without using wall material and microencapsulated using wall material by spray drying.
Authors:İ. Gülçin, Ş. Beydemir, ?.G. Şat, and Ö.İ. Küfrevioğlu
In present study, water extract of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) (WECM) was studied for antioxidant properties. The antioxidant properties of WECM were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. These properties may be the major reason for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The concentration of 20, 40 and 60 µg ml-1 of WECM showed 75.8, 93.4 and 97.5% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. On the other hand, 60 µg ml-1 of standard antioxidants such as BHA, BHT and a-tocopherol exhibited 96.5, 99.2 and 61.1% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, the WECM had effective reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities at the same concentrations (20, 40, and 60 µg ml-1). Those various antioxidant activities were compared to reference antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and a -tocopherol. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the WECM were determinedas gallic acid equivalent.
The aim of the present study was to test the antioxidant activity of rosemary extract and its mixture with propylene glycol on the stability of fat in butter. Rosemary extract was added at a concentration of 0.02% (w/w) and mixture of rosemary extract with propylene glycol at a concentration of 0.25% (w/w) to the cream before churning. For comparison, control samples without added antioxidant were also prepared and tested. Samples were stored at 4 °C and at 20 °C for 27 days and their peroxide values were determined periodically. The measurement of peroxide values for butter at 60 and 98 °C was also performed. Activity of rosemary extracts was compared with synthetic antioxidant BHT. The rosemary extract and its mixture with propylene glycol exhibited strong antioxidant activity in butter when added to a cream before churning and in an aqueous emulsion system of β-carotene and linolenic acid.