Studies on functional propertiesof a protein concentrate produced from the seeds of bakul (Mimusops elengiL.; Sapotaceae) have been carried out. Solubility of the protein was minimum at pH 4.0. Water and oil holding capacities of the seed protein concentrate were 1.70 g g-1and 3.23 g g-1, respectively. Minimum foaming capacity, minimum emulsifying activity, minimum emulsion stability and maximum foam stability were found at pH 4.0. Moreover, emulsion stability of the protein concentrate was high (above 88.3%) over the pH range of 2-10.
The objectives of this study were to produce microencapsulated liquorice root extract (LRE) and determine storage stability of the product obtained. Maltodextrin (MD) and gum arabic (GA) as wall material were used to produce microencapsulated LRE by spray drying technology. Ratio of MD to GA was determined by response surface methodology. Three parameters: microencapsulation yield (MY), microencapsulation efficiency (ME), and Carr index as response were evaluated for optimization. MD emulsion was best for microencapsulation of LRE. Control emulsion was prepared without using any wall material. MD and control emulsions were stored for 6 months. Both preserved their bioactive and physical properties during storage. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA) of MD and control emulsions ranged from 8.09–9.09 and 34.59–39.02 mg GAE/g (TPC); 44.78–51.27 and 136.13–171.08 mg TEAC/g (AA), respectively, during storage. Furthermore, moisture content, water activity, solubility, wettability, Carr index, and Hausner ratio of samples were found to vary between 1.54–3.12%, 0.16–0.32, 93.54–99.22%, 180–240 sec, 22.5–35.63, and 1.29–1.56, respectively, during storage. This study provides direct comparative data on properties of LRE powders produced without using wall material and microencapsulated using wall material by spray drying.
Authors:İ. Gülçin, Ş. Beydemir, ?.G. Şat, and Ö.İ. Küfrevioğlu
In present study, water extract of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) (WECM) was studied for antioxidant properties. The antioxidant properties of WECM were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. These properties may be the major reason for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The concentration of 20, 40 and 60 µg ml-1 of WECM showed 75.8, 93.4 and 97.5% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. On the other hand, 60 µg ml-1 of standard antioxidants such as BHA, BHT and a-tocopherol exhibited 96.5, 99.2 and 61.1% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, the WECM had effective reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities at the same concentrations (20, 40, and 60 µg ml-1). Those various antioxidant activities were compared to reference antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and a -tocopherol. In addition, total phenolic compounds in the WECM were determinedas gallic acid equivalent.
The aim of the present study was to test the antioxidant activity of rosemary extract and its mixture with propylene glycol on the stability of fat in butter. Rosemary extract was added at a concentration of 0.02% (w/w) and mixture of rosemary extract with propylene glycol at a concentration of 0.25% (w/w) to the cream before churning. For comparison, control samples without added antioxidant were also prepared and tested. Samples were stored at 4 °C and at 20 °C for 27 days and their peroxide values were determined periodically. The measurement of peroxide values for butter at 60 and 98 °C was also performed. Activity of rosemary extracts was compared with synthetic antioxidant BHT. The rosemary extract and its mixture with propylene glycol exhibited strong antioxidant activity in butter when added to a cream before churning and in an aqueous emulsion system of β-carotene and linolenic acid.
Authors:Kalman Buzas, Peter Budai, and Adrienne Clement
One and a half year long field sampling was established in order to evaluate the contamination of storm water runoff. The event means (EMC) total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration of the runoff was a function of the actual traffic intensity and the rainfall depth. It was concluded that this TPH, of which dominant component is the engine-oil (characteristically C28) does not form an ‘oil-in-water’ type emulsion in the condition of normal motorway-operation, but is interlocked to asphalt, rubber and soot particles of maximum some ten microns size. This condition influences the possibility, way and extent of separation alike. The separation equipments and their sizing applied so far are not suitable to achieve efficient surface water protection. Practical prevention method of accidental type environment pollution was also suggested. On the basis of the international literature evaluation, technical solutions capable to decrease the runoff pollution were summarized. Among these, useful calculation method was developed for designers to determine the sufficient storage capacity (water quality volume) of reservoirs applied for water quality protection. Monitoring technique of runoffs, which are characterized time dependent, variable pollutant concentrations by their nature, was proposed. It was stated that the administrative regulation should aim at the EMC instead of current concentration. Beside TPH information was gained on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), suspended solids, heavy metals, pH, and nutrient (N, P) pollution of the runoff, which are valuable for the grounding of further research results.
lead to change of functional properties of the system. As a result of incorporating the multiple water-in-oil-in-water emulsions of nanosized lipids, food spreadability and stability are improved. A low-fat mayonnaise formulation for example provides a