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: Encapsulation of biologically active proteins in a multiple emulsion . Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 59 , 492 – 496 ( 1995 ) 43. Chang HM , Ou-Yang RF

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The insecticide formulation BI 58 EC was tested for teratogenicity in chicken embryos, with particular reference to degradation of the active ingredient (dimethoate) after the treatment of embryonated eggs. The pesticide was diluted in water to a concentration level of 0.8%, and the emulsion was injected into the air space in a volume of 0.1 ml/egg, or hen’s eggs were treated by the immersion technique. Residues of dimethoate were measured in the samples on days 13, 15 and 19 of the incubation of chicken embryos, and morphological examinations were performed simultaneously. Analytical chemistry data indicated a slower degradation of dimethoate in embryos after the immersion of eggs, and cyllosis was remarkable in this group among the sporadic developmental anomalies. The liver tissues ofboth treated groups exhibited severe fatty infiltration.

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cationic emulsion in the treatment of severe dry eye disease: a multicenter randomized trial. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2016; 26: 287–296. 50 Perez VL, Pflugfelder SC, Zhang S, et al

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, 7 (1), 71–86. 37 Fornaguera, C., Dols-Perez, A., Calderó, G., et al.: PLGA nanoparticles prepared by nano-emulsion templating using low-energy methods as

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Meibom-mirigy-diszfunkció és a száraz szem

Diagnosztikai és kezelési lehetőségek

Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Balázs Kovács, Boglárka Láng, Anna Takácsi-Nagy, Györgyi Horváth, Cecília Czakó, Anita Csorba, Huba Kiss, Irén Szalai, Zoltán Zsolt Nagy, and Illés Kovács

. 42 Sindt CW, Foulks GN. Efficacy of an artificial tear emulsion in patients with dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction. Clin Ophthalmol. 2013; 7: 1713

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As immune responses to live and inactivated vaccines might differ, temporal responses of broiler chickens to vaccination were examined on the basis of the abundance in the circulating blood of gene transcripts of IFN-α, IFN-γ and IL-2, critical cytokines for immune responses. Blood samples were collected 6, 12 and 24 hours, and 7 and 14 days following vaccination with either live or inactivated Newcastle disease virus, La Sota strain, at 14 days of age, and the abundance of transcripts for each cytokine was assayed by real-time RT-PCR. Physiological saline and vaccine emulsion without viral antigen were administered to control groups for live and inactivated vaccine groups, respectively. The abundance of IFN-γ transcripts was elevated during the early times following vaccination and had reached baseline by the seventh day but the abundance of IFN-α transcripts remained elevated. Transcripts for neither IFN gene were detected in the control birds. The abundance of transcripts for each IFN was not different between the two vaccinated groups at any time. Transcripts for IL-2 were detected only in spleens from chicken embryos that had been inoculated with the live virus. The results show that cells stimulated to produce IFN-α and IFN-γ enter the circulating blood but those stimulated to produce IL-2 do not, or in very low number, and the IFN responses to both vaccines are the same.

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C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin (Hp) are well-known acute phase proteins in the dog. Currently, a commercial ELISA and a colorimetric assay are the methods of choice for measuring CRP and Hp, respectively; however, these assays showed interference when using haemolysed, lipaemic or hyperbilirubinaemic samples. Recently, time-resolved immunofluorometric assays (TRIFMAs) have been developed for measuring canine CRP and Hp. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of increasing concentrations of haemoglobin, lipids and bilirubin in CRP and Hp serum measurements using these new fluoroimmunoassays. Haemolysis was produced by freezing blood cells at −20°C. The haemolysate was added to pooled sera at final concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/L. A commercial emulsion of triglycerides was added to homologous pooled sera at 0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.4, 2.8, 5.6 and 11.2 mmol/L. Bilirubin, initially dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide, was added to pooled sera at 0, 64.2, 128.4, 256.8, 513.7 and 1027.4 μmol/L. Addition of fresh haemolysate, triglycerides or bilirubin to serum samples did not affect either CRP or Hp concentrations (P ≥ 0.18), so the TR-IFMAs could be an alternative to the traditional tests for measuring canine CRP and Hp in those laboratories where immunofluorometric assays are available.

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Célkitűzés: Vizsgálatunkban felmértük az intenzív osztályos nővérek ismeretét a CVC (centrális vénás kanül) okozta fertőzések megelőzésének evidencia alapú ajánlásairól. Módszer: A vizsgálatban részt vevő intenzív osztályok nővérei önkéntes részvétellel validált, többszörös választásos kérdőívet töltöttek ki 2006. október és december között. A kérdőív válaszai mellett demográfiai adatokat is gyűjtöttünk: a válaszadó neme, intenzív osztályos (ITO) gyakorlati évek száma, ágyszám, intenzíves szakápolói, illetve főiskolai diploma megléte. Eredmények: 11 intenzív osztályról 178 kérdőívet elemeztünk. A 10 kérdésre adott helyes válaszok átlaga 36,6% volt. A válaszadók közül csak kevesen (18%) tudták, hogy a CVC-k rutinszerű cseréje nem ajánlott, a többség (61,2%) viszont helyesen választotta, hogy a kanülcsere vezetődróton áthúzva nem megfelelő. A nyomásmérő szerelék cseréjét 47,8% végezné minden 4. napon, az antibiotikummal impregnált kanül használatának előnyét pedig 66,3% ismerte. A CVC fedőkötését csak 15,2% végezné el hetente, és csak 34,8% tudta, hogy mind a poliuretán, mind a géz alapú fedőkötés használható. A bőrfertőtlenítésre a 2%-os klór-hexidin ajánlott, ezt 19,8% jelölte meg helyesen; az antibiotikumos kenőcs rezisztenciaokozó hatását 13,6% tudta. Zsíroldatok adásakor 24 óránként cserélné a szereléket a válaszadók 86,4%-a, de csak 4,5% cserélné a tiszta infúziós szereléket 96 óránként. Az intenzív osztályos gyakorlati évek és az ITO-ágyszám nem mutatott korrelációt az eredményekkel. Megbeszélés: Vizsgálatunk alapján az intenzív osztályos nővérek ismerete a CVC okozta fertőzések megelőzéséről nem megfelelő. A nemzetközi ajánlások ismertetése a nővérek graduális és posztgraduális képzésében szükséges volna.

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Abstract

Objective

The present study was conducted to assess the effects of the GnRH agonist (alarelin) on the expression of GnRHR, FSHR and LHR mRNAs in the pituitary gland and uterine development in female mice.

Methods

Sixty pre-estrus female mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 15). The mice in experiment group 1 (EG-1), experiment group 2 (EG-2), and experiment group 3 (EG-3) were subcutaneously injected with 0.375 μg/kg, 0.75 μg/kg and 1.5 μg/kg alarelin antigen emulsion, respectively, once a day during 7 consecutive days to enhance immune response. Mice in the control group (CG) were injected with 0.l ml solvent once a day on 7 consecutive days. The samples of blood, pituitary and uterine horns were collected aseptically at day 21 from each mouse. Fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR was implemented to detect gene expression of GnRHR, FSHR and LHR in the pituitary glands. ELISA was used to measure the serum LH and FSH concentrations. The uterine slices were observed under an optical microscope; the images were measured using Motic software.

Results

(1) Compared to CG, the uterine weights in EG-1, EG-2 and EG-3 decreased by 34.43%, 54.10% and 55.74% (P < 0.05), respectively. (2) Uterine wall thickness in EG-1, EG-2 and EG-3 reduced by 8.64%, 8.04% and 14.03% (P < 0.05), respectively. Endometrial epithelium thickness in EG-1, EG-2 and EG-3 reduced by 29.43%, 28.55% and 38.49%, respectively, when compared with that of CG. (3) The 2−ΔΔCt values of GnRHR, FSHR and LHR mRNAs in the pituitary gland of EG-1 (P < 0.05), EG-2 (P < 0.01) and EG-3 (P < 0.01) were lower than that of CG. The uterine cavity in EG-1 slightly decreased. (4) Serum FSH concentrations in EG-1, EG-2 (P < 0.05) and EG-3 (P < 0.01) increased, with the highest increment in EG-3 (79.80%). Serum LH concentrations in the three EGs decreased (P < 0.05). (5) The uterine cavities and glandular lumen volumes in EG-2 and EG-3 narrowed, and the uterine wall became thinner obviously. The number of uterine glands in EG-3 decreased.

Conclusion

Alarelin antigen active immunization can suppress the expression of GnRHR, FSHR and LHR mRNAs in the pituitary gland, impact the secretion of FSH and LH, and obviously inhibit uterine growth and development, especially endometrial epithelial cells (EEC) and uterine gland. The effects were dose dependent.

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, 27 (11), 2525–2531. Umpierrez, G. E., Spiegelman, R., Zhao, V., et al.: A double-blind, randomizied clinical trial comparing soybean oil-based versus olive oil-based lipid emulsions in adult medical

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