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Abstract  

The quality tests of radionuclides produced from generators (99Mo→99mTc,113Sn→113mIn) have been reviewed. The quality controls of radiopharmaceuticals derived from these radionuclides and prepared with the help of ready-for-use reagents assembled in kits have been presented. The possibility of new tests regarding sterility (by means of a radiometric method) and detection of endotoxin (based on gelification of limulus amoebocyte lysate) have been suggested.

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Abstract  

We used artificial planar lipid membranes to investigate, the mode of action of cytolysins of different origin. We studied some pathologically important bacterial toxins (e. g. S. aureus -toxin, C. perfringens -toxin, B. thuringiensis -endotoxin and E. coli -hemolysin). All these toxins are used by the bacteria to damage the cells of the invaded organism. We also studied cytolysins of animal origin which are used to react against the attack of foreign organisms like cytolysins from the nematocysts of sea anemones. These proteins disrupt the permeability barrier of the attacked cell membrane by opening a pore into the lipid matrix. We found that in most cases a receptor is not truly required to render them competent to bind to a cell membrane, they spontaneously insert into preformed pure lipid membranes. Several properties of the resulting pores were compared. They are generally large, water filled, and stay open for long periods. In most cases neutral molecules up to a few kDa molecular weight (like sugars and metabolites) can easily pass through the channel. They are weakly selective, usually being able to discriminate only between anions and cations. The selectivity depends on the presence of fixed charges on the protein since it is modulated by pH and by chemical modification of the protein charged residues.

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Abstract  

[18F]-3′-deoxy-3′-fluorothymidine ([18F]FLT) is an established positron emission tomograph (PET)—radiopharmaceutical to study cell-proliferation rate in tumors. Very low practical yield, uncertain and time-consuming high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification, are the main obstacles for the routine use of [18F]FLT in clinical PET. To obviate these difficulties, we have developed a fully automated radiosynthesis procedure for [18F]FLT using 5′-O-(4,4′-dimethoxytriphenylmethyl)-2,3′-anhydro-thymidine (DMTThy) and simplified single neutral alumina column purification. The [18F]FLT yield was 8.48 ± 0.93% (n = 5) (without radioactive decay correction) in a synthesis time of 68 ± 3 min. The radiochemical purity was greater than 95% as confirmed by analytical HPLC using reference standard FLT and also free of non-radioactive impurity. Soluble aluminum in the final product was much below the permissible limits. Di-methyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the reaction medium, could be detected in the final product in trace amounts, well below the permissible levels. The synthesized [18F]FLT was sterile and bacterial endotoxin free by appropriate tests. PET imaging study in normal rabbits showed distinct localization of [18F]FLT in organs having rapid cell division rate like bone marrow, guts and snout and the excretion was through the renal route. There were no significant uptakes in bone and brain. The former finding confirms the in vivo stability of the [18F]FLT. This simplified radiosynthesis procedure can easily be adapted in any commercial or indigenous [18F]FDG synthesis module for routine [18F]FLT synthesis without the need of additional automation for HPLC purification.

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.1016/0014-5793(96)00046-4 . 30. Fishkin , RJ , Winslow , JT . 1997 . Endotoxin-induced reduction of social investigation by mice: interaction with amphetamine and anti-inflammatory drugs . Psychopharmacology (Ber.) . 132 : 335 – 341 10

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in levels, species and DNA fingerprints of soil microorganisms associated with cotton expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki endotoxin. Appl. Soil Ecol. 2 . 111-124. Changes in levels, species and DNA

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.02.013 . 24. Rezaee , A , Ghanizadeh , G , Behzadiyannejad , G , Yazdanbakhsh , AR , Siyadat , SD 2009 Adsorption of endotoxin from aqueous solution using bone charcoal . Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 6 : 732 – 737 10.1007/s

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Bt maize expresses Cry endotoxin proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus. Berliner Thuringiensis (Bt), which can significantly reduce the economic damage caused by the pest. Advantages of Bt maize include effective pest control ( Storer et

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Bt maize expresses Cry endotoxin proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus. Berliner Thuringiensis (Bt), which can significantly reduce the economic damage caused by the pest. Advantages of Bt maize include effective pest control ( Storer et

Open access