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As suggested by previous research, childlessness can thoroughly affect the likelihood of giving and receiving help to kin, even in modern societies. In this paper we show that childless women over thirty-five have had more recent contact with their nephews/nieces than mothers. Yet, both groups showed no significant differences in contact with their uncles/aunts. This suggests heightened social investment in kin with high reproductive value by childless women compared to mothers. Results are discussed with reference to kin selection theory.

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Mentálhigiéné és Pszichoszomatika
Authors: Ferenc Grezsa, Zsuzsanna Mirnics, András Vargha, Zsuzsanna Kövi, Sándor Rózsa, Zoltán Vass, and Tamás Koós

Absztrakt

Elméleti háttér: A drogok használatának széles körű elterjedtsége és a kipróbálás egyre korábbi időpontra kerülése miatt napjaink fontos kutatási célja a szerekhez kapcsolódó rizikó- és védő faktorok azonosítása. Az „Iskolai Egészségfejlesztés és Univerzális Drogmegelőzés” (IEUD) elnevezésű kutatást a Nemzeti Család- és Szociálpolitikai Intézet kutatócsoportja indította. Reprezentatív adatok alapján hiteles képet kívántunk nyerni a 6—18 éves iskolás generáció mentálhigiénés állapotáról, ezen belül a szerhasználatról (dohányzás, alkohol- és kábítószer-fogyasztás), a kockázati tényezőkről, illetve a védő (preventív, protektív) faktorokról. Elemzésünkben elsősorban a szerek kipróbálásának és használatának környezeti-kapcsolati összefüggéseit tártuk fel. Módszerek: A vizsgálatban 7623, 1., 3., 5., 7., 9. és 11. osztályos tanuló vett részt. Kérdőíves (tanórai) adatfelvételt végeztünk egy olyan komplex tesztbattériával, amely a szerhasználati szokásokon kívül rákérdezett a kapcsolati mintákra és modellekre, felmért továbbá számos pszichés faktort (pl. Big Five személyiségjegyek, deviancia, hangulati változók). Eredmények: A szerfogyasztási mutatók a Magyarországon készült korábbi reprezentatív vizsgálatok eredményeihez hasonlóan alakultak. A Globális Szerhasználati Mutató mintegy 51 százalékát lehet pszichoszociális változókkal magyarázni, ezen belül erősen meghatározónak találtuk a devianciát, az anyai nevelést, a családból és kortárs közösségből származó modelleket, egyes személyiségjegyeket (pl. extraverzió, neuroticizmus) és a másik nem körében való észlelt népszerűséget. Következtetések: Vizsgálatunk tanulságait a drogprevenció célkitűzéseinek és módszereinek kijelölésénél lehet alkalmazni. Álláspontunk szerint a célzott prevenció során fokozott figyelemmel kell kísérni a deviáns magatartásra veszélyeztetett csoportokat; továbbá egyes kockázatot jelentő személyiségjegyekkel bíró (pl. érzelmileg labilisabb) serdülőket. Adataink tükrében ígéretes eredményeket hozhatnak a családra fókuszáló, például szülői monitoring technikákat erősítő és a kortárscsoportokat bevonó intervenciók.

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people. Furthermore, these data can be compared with the positions they held during later periods of their lives, as well as with their family relations and high reputation within their community. However, before turning to analysing the relationships of

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Abstract

The article is part of a series of similar title. The author already addressed himself earlier to metalworking in the towns of Keszthely and Komárom, but new archival sources have become accessible. From birth/marriage/death registers and tax registers the names of further goldsmiths could be gleaned, while the family relations of others could be clarified. A specific group of relics, the typical silver chains of Gypsy voivods made around 1850 were successfully tied up with goldsmith József Setosits of Keszthely. Museum objects can be attached to data in the 17th century register data of Komárom: works by György Szentjóby, Master KB. From among the goldsmith's dynasties of the 19th century, the Grünhut family can be traced up to 1944.

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Corruption is linked with the issue of clientelism. This establishes a wide understanding of that phenomenon. This wide context and understanding of corruption is simplified by the recognition of the patron-client system, accompanying corruption or even identified with it. Clientelism may be of personal or mass character, and consists of mutual provision of services, without the need to lay out funds for achieving common goals. Socio-economic transformation as profound and thorough reform of the system and institutions promotes corruption practices (the process of transfer of resources from public to private sector progressed swiftly). Clientelism is linked with the phenomenon of crony capitalism, which is treated as synonymous to corruption or favoring corruption. Corruption provides a means for maintaining and the development of client networks. Patron-client relations are of secondary nature in some societies; in other societies they substantially influence the shape of the political and economic system, as well as social structure. Such relations may transgress the borders between classes, professional groups, organizations, family relations. Where liberal-democratic parliamentarism coincides with the absence of an educated civil society, the civil service of the state, the domination of political parties and pressure groups is present, which favor clientelistic corruption, influencing the development of private sector and formation of capital. Political parties distribute and decide upon thousands of positions. They organize their own client communities. Still, typical clientelistic societies are rather not common. If they were, in the long run they would cause loss of the competitive edge of the economy on the global market. The dynamics of economy indicates that the factors which paralyze economic development have not dominated the economic system in Poland as yet, and that system maintains its autonomy. This does not imply, however, the activation of long-term growth factors and the elimination of what is called lost opportunity costs in the economy.

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Archbishop of Esztergom György Lippay’s (1600–1666) summer residence and garden in Pozsony were represented on a series of engravings published in 1663. A hitherto unknown piece of this series features the eastern view of the residence (Bibliotheca Ecclesiae Metropolitanae Strigoniensis, Esztergom; fig.). The sheet bears the signature of Johann Jacob Khün, painter to the archbishop who supposedly produced the drawings for the entire series.

According to various sources most of which were concluded by Klára Garas, Khün came from a family of over four generations of painters and sculptors originated in Besztercebánya. The present study attempts to uncover documents representing Khün’s family relations and personal connections in the milieu of the archbishop’s court at Pressburg.

Only a few sources remain on Johann Jacob Khün’s work in archbishop Lippay’s service. Based on a few miscellaneous allusions and the painter’s recently recovered letter written to the archbishop’s physician and familiar Polycarpus Procopius Bonannus (d. 1664) in 1659, the author presumes that Khün was the grandson of Jacob Khien the elder (d. after 1619) who created the so-called Zmeskál epitaph (Berzevice, c. 1600). Johann Jacob Khün’s father was probably the painter Jacob Khien the younger who became a burgess of Besztercebánya in 1619. Pozsony sculptor Johann Christoph Khien (d. 1696/97), creator of the Holy Trinity column of Nagyszombat (1683–1695), and Ferdinand Khien, a doctor born in Besztercebánya who graduated at the University of Wittenberg (1667) and later worked in Eperjes and Pozsony were probably Johann Jacob Khün’s brothers. Judging by the 1659 letter and other sources, Khün’s brother Ferdinand may well have been helped with the starting of his medical career by Bonannus who probably interceeded for him to spend his pharmacist’s training in Johann Weber’s (1612–1684) pharmacy in Eperjes.

Khün’s letter implies that he may well have produced illustrations for Bonannus’s ambitious but ultimately unpublished and lost opus describing Hungary’s geographical and mineralogical treasures, entitled De admirandis Hungariae rebus, backed by archbishop Lippay and Lord Chief Justice Ferenc Nádasdy (1623–1671). The correspondence of Bonannus, a rare group of sources, provides some important data to the project and Khün’s surmized participation, and might as well lead to closer acquaintance with the process of furnishing and decorating of archbishop György Lippay’s summer residence and garden of Pozsony.

A year after the publishing of the print series Khün already worked as a court painter to Count (later Palatine and Prince) Pál Esterházy (1635–1713). Between 1664 and 1671 he produced at least eight paintings for him, and decorated sixteen rooms of his Kismarton Castle.

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Antal Verancsics (1504-1573) was born in Sebenico (Šibenik) to a noble family and he got to Hungary through family relations: his uncle János Statileo (Statilić) was bishop of Gyulafehérvár. His political career started in the court of King John I (Szapolyai). In 1541 he followed the widow of the king, Izabella Jagiello to Transylvania and only changed over to the other king of Hungary, Ferdinand I’s court in 1549 where he filled high administrative positions. As a Habsburg envoy, he sojourned in the Ottoman Empire on two occasions and in 1568 he concluded the Treaty of Adrianople (Hadrianopolis, Edirne). On the zenith of his ecclesiastic career he became archbishop of Esztergom (1569) and eventually cardinal (1573). He went into historiography, too: he wrote some works and a considerable number of sources he collected survive. In his youth he wrote poems in Latin and Italian and was on good terms with painters and sculptors. Martino Rota, also born in Sebenico, was invited to Hungary by him. Several data confirm that he had a keen interest in portraits (he wrote an epigram on Dürer’s Melanchthon portrait); he ordered portraits of himself from Melchior Lorch, Martino Rota and Antonio Abondio. He organized that a Crakow painter should paint the portrait of John Sigismund elected King of Hungary, and his correspondence with his siblings about having a portrait of his father painted is known. Back from his first mission in Turkey, in 1558 he wrote an epigram on an enigmatic woodcut composition of a multitude of elements tailored to Sultan Suleyman I, and dedicated the emblem to Maximilian, crowned king of Bohemia and heir apparent to the Hungarian throne. This composition is included in the second edition of Johannes Sambucus’ Emblemata. Some tomes of his library featured – in line with the fashion of the age – supralibros, and as bishop of Eger, he had an ornate parchment codex, a Praefationale made (1563). The rather mediocre quality initials of the manuscript echo the humanist cult of letters which produced the most beautiful achievements of artistic calligraphy in the middle of the century. In one initial Verancsics himself appears, his tiny figure kneeling before Christ’s cross (fol. 42r). Verancsics was interested in the material relics of antiquity, too: in Transylvania he collected stone carvings, coins and Roman inscriptions. As bishop of Eger he perpetuated the restoration of the castle in a monumental inscription. Also attracted to sepulchral monuments, he had the tomb of one of his predecessors in the diocese damaged in the siege of 1552 restored. He wished to have his funerary monument in the St Nicholas church in Nagyszombat, one like his predecessor in the episcopacy of Esztergom Miklós Oláh had, with a portrait statue. It was eventually not made. Finally, an overview of the sources that can provide clues as to the artistic interests of Antal Verancsics reveals that most of the sources are in the – unpublished – collection of letter and the book of poems he compiled. His intellectual self-portrait also includes his attraction to the arts.

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Abstract

The paper is concerned with a 17th century relic of French baroque painting meagerly represented in Hungarian private collections. The author has had a chance lately to directly examine the work known to Hungarian special researchers since 1966 as a work by a Spanish or French painter. As a result of the examination, the painter, the portrayed person and the client who ordered the picture could be identified. As the decoding of the that-time inscription on the back reveals, it was painted in 1676 by Carlo (Charles) Palme, an offspring of a dynasty of Lucchese painters born in Aix-en-Provence. The owner of both the painting and the portrayed person was an aristocratic lady in Aix-en-Provence, Madame de Venel born Madeleine de Gaillard de Longjumeau (1620–1688), who became known as the governess of Cardinal Mazarin's nieces Les Mazarinettes (the Mancini girls) as well as of the children of Louis XIV and the future king of Spain Philip V of the Bourbon house. The lady and her husband, Gaspard de Venel were among Mazarin's supporters. They served in the court of the queen mother Anne of Austria, then of Maria Theresa of Spain and her husband the Sun King. The full-length portrait of Raimond, the violinist with dwarfism set in a Provencale landscape is a rare artistic document of the centuries-old custom of keeping little people for entertainment at the French court, too. The wife of Louis XIV is known to have kept several dwarfs around her. The childless Madame de Venel, her lady-in-waiting had Raimond, and her husband also had a dwarf whose portrait is said by the sources to have also been painted, this time by another well-known Provencale painter Laurent Fauchier before 1672. This – now latent – painting had been kept tabs on in the collection of Madame de Venel's heirs (de Gaillard-Longjumeau line) until 1770 (in the inventory taken on 20 September 1770 it is designated: Tableaux: No. 3. Le nain de Monsieur de Venel). The Budapest painting helps clarify the relation between 17th century Provencale portraiture and the social role little people with dwarfism played in 17th century French society. The professional collaboration and the family relations of the two painter families of Aix, the Palmes and the Fauchiers, as well as their relationship with their patrons the Venel family can be discerned. But the career of another dwarf of Provence, Antoine Godeau (1605–1672), nicknamed “Le Nain de Julie”, “Le Nain de la Princesse”, a once celebrated poet, one of the founders of the French Academy, later bishop of Grasse and then Vence, proves that an achondroplasiatic body stature did not necessarily hinder social success. The Venel family who kept two dwarfs and had them portrayed by local masters chose a motto for the picturesque decoration of their residence in Aix from the love poetry of the dwarf poet: “Allez amours, à tire d'aile”. The up-to-date elaboration of the Aix portrait painter Carlo Palme is still a task to be done, but the portrait of Raimond, the dwarf of Madame de Venel dated 1676 now in Hungary can be ranged among the early pieces in his oeuvre.

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. Family Relations, 43 (1), 46—52. Lewis, R.A., & Spanier, G.B. (1979). Theorizing about the quality and stability of marriage. In W.R. Burr, R. Hill, F.I. Nye, & I.L. Reiss (Eds.), Contemporary theories about the family (Vol. 1

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. Family Relations , 39, 4 , 443-449. Religious belief and practice: A potential asset in helping families Family Relations 39, 4

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