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presumed health benefits, the general public is seeking out alternative flour options ( 3 ), such as chickpea flour. However, it is unclear what the acute effects of this antioxidant-rich dietary substitution ( 2 ) may be on endothelial function in healthy

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] 14 Nagy, L., Orosz, M.: Immunological and physiological investigations in flour induced occupational asthma. [Immunológiai és fiziológiai vizsgálatok liszt asthmában.] Orv. Hetil., 1984

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Anna Kulcsár, Gábor Mátis, Andor Molnár, Janka Petrilla, Ferenc Husvéth, Korinna Huber, Károly Dublecz, and Zsuzsanna Neogrády

. Douglas , S. G. ( 1981 ): A rapid method for the determination of pentosans in wheat flour . Food Chem. 7 , 139 – 145 . Gao , Z. , Yin , J. , Zhang , J. , Ward , R

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Petra Havas, Szilárd Kun, Izabell Perger-Mészáros, Judit M. Rezessy-Szabó, and Quang D. Nguyen

, H. , Fujimake , M. , Sakurai , Y. : Studies on flavour components in soybean. Part 2. Phenolic acids in defatted soybean flour . Agr Biol Chem 30 , 364 – 369 ( 1996 ). 10

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Janka Petrilla, Gábor Mátis, Anna Kulcsár, Petra Talapka, Enikő Bíró, Máté Mackei, Hedvig Fébel, and Zsuzsanna Neogrády

method for the determination of pentosans in wheat flour . Food Chem. 7 , 139 – 145 . Engberg , R. M. , Hedeman , M. S. , Steenfeldt , S. and Jensen , B. B. ( 2004

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Sára Zsigrai, Alexandra Kalmár, Gábor Valcz, Krisztina Andrea Szigeti, Barbara Kinga Barták, Zsófia Brigitta Nagy, Péter Igaz, Zsolt Tulassay, and Béla Molnár

, Weber MB, Bell KN, et al. Scientific evidence supporting folic acid fortification of flour in Australia and New Zealand. Birth Defects Res A 2004; 70: 838–841. 3 Hoffbrand AV, Weir

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chickpea flour in pasta increases brachial artery flow-mediated dilation . Physiol Int 2019 ; 106 : 207 – 12 . 10.1556/2060.106.2019.21 54. Hackney AC , Hooper DR . Low testosterone: androgen deficiency, endurance exercise training, and

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Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin, a secondary metabolite produced by mould fungi belonging to several Aspergillus and Penicillium species. It is formed during the storage of cereal grains and other plant-derived products. OTA ingested by humans and animals with the food or feed may exert deleterious effects on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ochratoxin contamination of the most important potential sources of OTA. The OTA content of cereal samples for human consumption (36 baking wheat, 16 wheat flour and 6 maize coarse meal samples) and feed grain samples (30 feeding wheat, 32 feeding maize and 20 feeding barley samples) collected in the mid-phase or at the end of the storage period and of 50 commercial coffee samples was determined. The analyses were performed by immunoaffinity column - high-performance liquid chromatography (IAC-HPLC). The limit of detection of the method was 0.1 ng/g. Of the wheat samples intended for human consumption, 8.3% contained OTA at 0.29 ng/g on the average (OTA ranges: 0.12-0.5 ng/g; Table 2). The OTA contamination of wheat flour and maize meal samples for human consumption was similar to that of the baking wheat samples. OTA contamination was found in 26.7% of the feeding wheat, 15.6% of the feeding maize and 35% of the feeding barley samples. The average values and the ranges of OTA levels found in the above samples were 12.2 and 0.3-62.8 ng/g, 4.9 and 1.9-8.3 ng/g, and 72 and 0.14-212 ng/g, respectively (Table 3). Sixty-six percent of the coffee samples were contaminated with OA (average level: 0.57 ng/g, ranges: 0.17-1.3 ng/g; Table 4). OTA contamination of baking wheat samples was found to be relatively low, presumably as a result of the favourable weather at harvest and the optimal storage conditions. Calculations made on the basis of the obtained results show that the daily OTA intake of an adult human from edible cereals is only 6.7 ng, while the amount taken up with coffee is 4.1 ng daily. The high prevalence and high levels of OTA contamination in feed grains can be explained by the unfavourable storage conditions, and this finding suggests that OA-related health problems may arise in animals, and that foods of animal origin may be contaminated with this mycotoxin.

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. 59 481 489. Colvin, B. M. and Ramsey, H. A. (1968): Soy flour in milk replacers for young calves. J. Dairy Sci. 52, 898

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Cullinan, P., Cook, A., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., et al.: Allergen and dust exposure as determinants of work-related symptoms and sensitization in a cohort of flour-exposed workers, a case-control analysis. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 2001, 45 , 97

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