Authors:JA Bruno, CH Feldman, DW Konas, AL Kerrihard, and EL Matthews
presumed health benefits, the general public is seeking out alternative flour options ( 3 ), such as chickpea flour. However, it is unclear what the acute effects of this antioxidant-rich dietary substitution ( 2 ) may be on endothelial function in healthy
Authors:B. Fazekas, A. K. Tar, and Melinda Zomborszky-Kovács
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin, a secondary metabolite produced by mould fungi belonging to several Aspergillus and Penicillium species. It is formed during the storage of cereal grains and other plant-derived products. OTA ingested by humans and animals with the food or feed may exert deleterious effects on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ochratoxin contamination of the most important potential sources of OTA. The OTA content of cereal samples for human consumption (36 baking wheat, 16 wheat flour and 6 maize coarse meal samples) and feed grain samples (30 feeding wheat, 32 feeding maize and 20 feeding barley samples) collected in the mid-phase or at the end of the storage period and of 50 commercial coffee samples was determined. The analyses were performed by immunoaffinity column - high-performance liquid chromatography (IAC-HPLC). The limit of detection of the method was 0.1 ng/g. Of the wheat samples intended for human consumption, 8.3% contained OTA at 0.29 ng/g on the average (OTA ranges: 0.12-0.5 ng/g; Table 2). The OTA contamination of wheat flour and maize meal samples for human consumption was similar to that of the baking wheat samples. OTA contamination was found in 26.7% of the feeding wheat, 15.6% of the feeding maize and 35% of the feeding barley samples. The average values and the ranges of OTA levels found in the above samples were 12.2 and 0.3-62.8 ng/g, 4.9 and 1.9-8.3 ng/g, and 72 and 0.14-212 ng/g, respectively (Table 3). Sixty-six percent of the coffee samples were contaminated with OA (average level: 0.57 ng/g, ranges: 0.17-1.3 ng/g; Table 4). OTA contamination of baking wheat samples was found to be relatively low, presumably as a result of the favourable weather at harvest and the optimal storage conditions. Calculations made on the basis of the obtained results show that the daily OTA intake of an adult human from edible cereals is only 6.7 ng, while the amount taken up with coffee is 4.1 ng daily. The high prevalence and high levels of OTA contamination in feed grains can be explained by the unfavourable storage conditions, and this finding suggests that OA-related health problems may arise in animals, and that foods of animal origin may be contaminated with this mycotoxin.
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