INTRODUCTION The official interest of the government was preoccupied with the issue of folkart and cottage industry in the second half of the 19 th century in Hungary. The Parliament discussed the support of cottage industry in 1877 for the
Sale of Ceramics at Present Time. Profile of a potter from Pezinok]. Bakkalaureatsarbeit der Univerzita sv . Cyrila a Metoda in Trnava 2010.
H ABERLANDT , Michael 1911 : Haberlandt: Österreichische Volkskunst [Austrian FolkArt] . Textband und
The Slovene ballad Animals Bury the Hunter is an animal narrative song of jocular character. It tells of the burial of a hunter and of a funeral procession not composed of humans but wild animals (a bear, foxes, hares, a wolf, cranes and partridges, song birds, etc.) who seem to derive great joy from the event. The analysis of the song's 31 variants reveals the changes made to the song over the course of time, as it survived through different historical periods and spread throughout Slovenia. I attempt to show that the ballad was used as a model for painted beehive panels featuring the same motif. In addition to the analysis, I am concerned with the sociological and ethical elements of the ballad. The paper proposes at least three possible theses: 1. The song is part of the conception of a topsy-turvy world, where the roles and mutual relationships of people and animals are reversed in an ironic sociological view of the world. 2. The song is a critique of one class by another: peasants mocking hunters who belong to a different social stratum. 3. The song is a representation of “pre-Cartesian” times, when animals were not “mere machines” without feelings, to be treated by man as objects with no ethical significance. It points to the ethical aspects of the human treatment of animals.
, Mária 1974 Viski Károly népművészeti kutatásainak eredményei (különös tekintettel a kerámia-kutatásra) [The Findings of Károly Viski’s Research on FolkArt (with Special Regard to Ceramics)].
In the first half of the 60s a conflict between modern art and traditional folk art culture can be detected. The resolution of this conflict could be imagined in the form of a synthesis of the two (following the model of Béla Bartók in music). This study offers some examples of this conflict and attempts at its consolidation in the art of János Orosz (folk surrealism), Mihály Schéner (individual transformation of folk art), Miklós Halmy (search for ‘archetypal roots’), etc. The paper finally deals with the fading possibility of the reconciliation of the neo-avant-garde and folkish/rural tendencies, as well as the negative connotations of the failed attempts to achieve it.
The article gives data referring to the meanings and functions of mushrooms in general, and with the Hungarians respectively to edible mushrooms. The Hungarians living in the Carpathian basin, being exposed to both mycophob and mycophile (German and Slavic) influences, formed an intermediary attitude, which is reflected up to now in the medium number of mushroom names and average knowledge about mushrooms. The knowledge about mushrooms of the Hungarian people can be considered medium, in some regions above average. The frequency of consuming mushrooms varies in different Hungarian regions. The article, while describing the mushroom consumption and mythology, the functions of mushroom in the food culture, the tools and methods of mushroom-gathering, the knowledge and beliefs related to edible and poisonous mushrooms, the role of edible mushrooms in folklore and folk art, compares them with other European traditions.
The general impression of Hungarian architecture in the seventies seems rather boring. However some tendencies emerged searching for alternatives and creating a characteristic Hungarian architecture within modernism. The folk architectural tradition was only obvious authentic source of especially Hungarian architecture in the seventies both for experts and laymen. Imre Makovecz and György Csete followed this way. But their analysis of traditional forms and patterns turned into searching for general signs and symbols, authenticity of folk art was proved by its connection to the organic world, to eancestral primitiveî. National patterns became cosmic signs. Some other architects turned to foreign lands for renewing national architecture; they concentrated on England, Finland, Denmark and Japan. Following of northern romantic modernism resulted in buildings made of local materials, adjusted to local scale and landscape. The other current tendency was the architectural structuralism whose representatives were just against loosing in detailing. This design method was based on the interaction of the flexible systems and the involved random things, as a perfect solution for the Hungarian reality, with its low standard building industry and mixed elements. International methods resulted in national solutions. The two opposite movements can be explained with the different interpretation of character: whether its source is in tradition or in place.
There are two basic types of Japanese female shamans, representing two different categories regarding their social position and their musical activities. (1) The medium type shamaness, the itako comes from a stratum of the rural society which lives in relative modesty and whose musical activities belong to folk art. The ceremony takes place in the itako’s house, in front of the house altar, kneeling on tatami. She improvises dialogs with previously living persons who speak through her mouth, or recites stories, ballads to “entertain” the deities. Among her musical instruments, the weapon-like catalpa bow holds an outstanding place. (2) The other type of shamaness, the miko is connected with the functions of shrines, their social position is basically on par with that of priests active in Shintô shrines. The miko’s main musical activity is to perform ceremonial dances in front of the shrine. Their dances are accompanied by chant and/or small instrumental groups (flute, drum). The third, indispensable instrument is the sistrum, held by the dancers themselves. The paper is based on the author’s personal field research conducted in 1988 and 1994.
Hoppál, Mihály (1990): Tulipán és szív. Szerelmi jelképek a magyar népmüvészetben (Tulip and heart: symbols of love in Hungarian folkart). Debrecen.
Tulipán és szív. Szerelmi jelképek a magyar népmüvészetben
did not suppress these – mainly aesthetic and identity building – ambitions but converted them into a means of the socialist ideology. New directions of folkart for the creative people have been drawn up by the applied folkart and cottage industry co