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Cramer, C. L., Ryder, T. B., Bell, J. N. and Lamb, C. J. (1985): Rapid switching of plant gene expression by fungal elicitor. Science 227, 1240-1243. Rapid switching of plant gene expression by fungal elicitor

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of endophytic fungi from tartary buckwheat on the host sprout growth and functional metabolite production. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous fungal mycelia elicitors notably stimulated the sprout growth and rutin accumulation, and the stimulation effect was mainly depended on the mycelia elicitor species along with its treatment dose. Three endophytic fungi Fat6 (Bionectria pityrodes), Fat9 (Fusarium oxysporum) and Fat15 (Alternaria sp.) were screened to be the most effective candidates for promoting F. tataricum sprout growth and rutin production. With application of polysaccharide (PS, 150 mg/l) of endophyte Fat6, PS (200 mg/l) of endophyte Fat9, and PS (150 mg/l) of endophyte Fat15, the rutin yield was effectively increased to 47.89 mg/(100 sprouts), 45.85 mg/(100 sprouts) and 46.83 mg/(100 sprouts), respectively. That was about 1.5- to 1.6-fold compared to the control culture of 29.37 mg/(100 sprouts). Furthermore, the present study revealed that the biosynthesis of the functional flavonoid resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by mycelia polysaccharide treatments. Application of specific fungal elicitors could be an efficient strategy for improving the nutritional and functional quality of tartary buckwheat sprouts.

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An elicitor molecule has been separated from Macrophomina phaseolina, the root rot pathogen of mungbean (Vigna radiata). Cell cultures of mung­bean cultivars one resistant and another susceptible to the pathogen, which responded to the elicitor have been established. The elicitor treatment induced rapid increases in phenolic synthesis, activation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and peroxidase in the cultured cells. Relative increases in phenolic synthesis and peroxidase activity were observed in suspension-cultured cells of the resistant cultivar compared to that of the susceptible one due to elicitor treatment.

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This study was to examine the effects of four fungal polysaccharides, namely exo-polysaccharide (EPS), water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS), sodium hydroxideextracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS), and hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS) obtained from the endophytic fungus Bionectra pityrodes Fat6, on the sprout growth and flavonoids production of Fagopyrum tataricum. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors notably stimulated the sprout growth and functional metabolites accumulation, and the stimulation effect was mainly depended on the polysaccharide species along with its treatment dose. With application of 150 mg/l of EPS, 150 mg/l of WPS and 200 mg/l of SPS, the total rutin and quercetin yield of buckwheat sprouts was effectively increased to 49.18 mg/(100 sprouts), 50.54 mg/(100 sprouts), and 52.27 mg/(100 sprouts), respectively. That was about 1.57- to 1.66-fold in comparison with the control culture of 31.40 mg/(100 sprouts). Moreover, the present study revealed the accumulation of bioactive flavonoids resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by fungal polysaccharide treatments. It could be an efficient strategy for improving the nutritional and functional quality of tartary buckwheat sprouts applied with specific fungal elicitors.

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Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Authors: J. Pintér, E. Kósa, G. Hadi, Z. Hegyi, T. Spitkó, Z. Tóth, Z. Szigeti, E. Páldi, and L. Marton

39 46 Arnott, T., Murphy, T. M. (1991): A comparison of the effects of a fungal elicitor and ultraviolet radiation on ion transport and hydrogen peroxide synthesis by rose

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58 65 Hedrick, S. A., Bell, J. N., Boller, T. and Lamb, C. J. (1988): Chitinase cDNA cloning and mRNA induction by fungal elicitor, wounding, and infection. Plant Physiol. 86

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.A., Moerschbacher, B.M., Grambow, H.J. 1986. Increased lipoxygenase activity is involved in the hypersensitive response of wheat leaf cells infected with the avirulent rust fungi or treated with fungal elicitor. Z. Naturforsch. 41c :559

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Showalter, A. M., Bell, J. N., Cramer, C. L., Bailey, J. A., Varner, J. R. and Lamb, C. J. (1985): Accumulation of hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein mRNA in response to fungal elicitor and infection. Proc. Natl. Accd. Sci., USA. 82, 6551

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. Pellegrini , L. , Rohfritsch , O. , Fritig , B. , Legrand , M. ( 1994 ) Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in tobacco . Molecular cloning and gene expression during the hypersensitive reaction to tobacco mosaic virus and the response to a fungal elicitor

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Mehdy, M.C., Lamb, C.J. 1987. Chalcone isomerase cDNA cloning and mRNA induction by fungal elicitor, wounding and infection. EMBO J. 6 :1527–1533. Lamb C.J. Chalcone isomerase cDNA

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